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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  Commission File No. 1-38300
 _________________________________
 CANNAE HOLDINGS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
 
82-1273460
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
 
1701 Village Center Circle,
Las Vegas,
Nevada
89134
(Address of principal executive offices)
(zip code)
(702) 323-7330
_____________________________________
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Trading Symbol
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Cannae Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
CNNE
New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes     No 
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes      No 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes       No  
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes     No 
 
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
     Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes      No 
 
The aggregate market value of the shares of Cannae Common Stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 28, 2019, was $1,941,307,497 based on the closing price of $28.98 as reported by the New York Stock Exchange.
As of January 31, 2020 there were 79,516,833 shares of Cannae common stock outstanding.
The information in Part III hereof for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, will be filed within 120 days after the close of the fiscal year that is the subject of this Report.
 
 
 
 
 



CANNAE HOLDINGS, INC.
FORM 10-K
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
 
Page
Number
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


i


PART I

Item 1.
Business 
Introductory Note
The following describes the business of Cannae Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Except where otherwise noted, all references to “we,” “us,” “our,” "Cannae", "Cannae Holdings", or the "Company," are to Cannae Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries, taken together.
Company Background
On November 17, 2017, Fidelity National Financial, Inc. (“FNF”) redeemed each outstanding share of its FNF Ventures ("FNFV") Group common stock, par value $0.0001, for one share of common stock, par value $0.0001, of a newly formed entity, Cannae (the "Split-Off"). In conjunction with the Split-Off, FNF contributed to us its portfolio of investments unrelated to its primary insurance and real estate operations which included majority and minority equity investment stakes in a number of entities and certain fixed income investments. On November 20, 2017, Cannae common stock began “regular-way” trading on The New York Stock Exchange under the “CNNE” stock symbol.
Description of Business
We are a holding company engaged in actively managing and operating a group of companies and investments, as well as making additional majority and minority equity portfolio investments in businesses, in order to achieve superior financial performance and maximize the value of these assets. Our primary investments as of December 31, 2019 include our minority ownership interests in The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation ("Dun & Bradstreet" or "D&B"), Ceridian HCM Holding, Inc. ("Ceridian") and Coding Solutions Topco, Inc. ("Coding Solutions", the joint venture that now owns T-System Holdings, Inc.); majority equity ownership stakes in O'Charley's, LLC ("O'Charley's) and 99 Restaurants Holdings, LLC ("99 Restaurants"); and various other equity and debt investments primarily in the real estate, financial services and healthcare technology industries.
The Company conducts its business through our wholly-owned subsidiary Cannae Holdings, LLC ("Cannae LLC"), a Delaware limited liability company. The Company’s board of directors ("Board") oversees the management of the Company, Cannae LLC and its businesses, and the performance of Trasimene Capital Management, LLC (“Trasimene” or our “Manager”). As previously disclosed, during the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, the Company transitioned to an externally managed structure (such externalization of certain management functions, the “Externalization”). In connection with the Externalization, the Company, Cannae LLC, and our Manager entered into a Management Services Agreement (the “Management Services Agreement”). See further discussion under the header Externalization in Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Annual Report") for further discussion of our Manager and current year change in management structure.
As of December 31, 2019, we had the following reportable segments:
Dun & Bradstreet. This segment consists of our 24.3% ownership interest in the parent of D&B. On February 8, 2019, Cannae and a consortium of other investors (the "D&B Investors") completed the previously announced acquisition of Dun & Bradstreet's ultimate parent (the "D&B Acquisition").
Dun & Bradstreet is a leading global provider of business decisioning data and analytics. Its mission is to deliver a global network of trust, enabling clients to transform uncertainty into confidence, risk into opportunity and potential into prosperity. Clients embed D&B's trusted, end-to-end solutions into their daily workflows to enhance salesforce productivity, gain visibility into key markets, inform commercial credit decisions and confirm that suppliers are financially viable and compliant with laws and regulations. Dun & Bradstreet's solutions support its clients’ mission critical business operations by providing proprietary and curated data and analytics to help drive informed decisions and improved outcomes.
Dun & Bradstreet is differentiated by the scale, depth, diversity and accuracy of its constantly expanding business database that contains comprehensive information on more than 355 million total businesses as of December 31, 2019. Access to longitudinal curated data is critical for global commerce, and with only a small percentage of the world’s businesses filing public financial statements, D&B data is a trusted source for reliable information about both public and private businesses. By building such a set of data over time, D&B was able to establish a unique identifier that creates a single thread connecting related corporate entities allowing its clients to form a holistic view of an enterprise. This unique identifier, which D&B refers to as the D-U-N-S Number, is a corporate ‘‘fingerprint’’ or ‘‘Social Security Number’’ of businesses. Dun & Bradstreet believes that it is the only scale provider to possess both worldwide commercial credit data and comprehensive public records data that are linked together by a unique identifier allowing for an accurate assessment of public and private businesses globally.
We account for our investment in Dun & Bradstreet using the equity method of accounting; therefore, its results of operations do not consolidate into ours.

1


Ceridian.  This segment consists of our 16.4% ownership interest in Ceridian. Ceridian is a global human capital management (“HCM”) software company. Dayforce, Ceridian's flagship cloud HCM platform, provides human resources (“HR”), payroll, benefits, workforce management, and talent management functionality. Dayforce is a single application that provides continuous real-time calculations across all modules to enable, for example, payroll administrators access to data through the entire pay period, and managers access to real-time data to optimize work schedules. Dayforce offers a comprehensive range of functionality, including global HR, payroll, benefits, workforce management, and talent management on web and native iOS and Android platforms. Ceridian's Dayforce mobile app enables employees not only to request and to trade schedules, but also to see the real-time impact of schedule changes on their pay. The Dayforce platform is used by organizations, regardless of industry or size, to optimize management of the entire employee lifecycle, including attracting, engaging, paying, deploying, and developing their people. In addition to Dayforce, Ceridian sells Powerpay, a cloud HR and payroll solution for the Canadian small business market, through both direct sales and established partner channels. Ceridian also continues to support customers using its Bureau solutions, which it generally stopped actively selling to new customers in 2012, following the acquisition of Dayforce. Ceridian invests in maintenance and necessary updates to support its Bureau customers and continues to migrate them to Dayforce.
We account for our investment in Ceridian using the equity method of accounting; therefore, its results of operations do not consolidate into ours.
Restaurant Group.  This segment consists of the operations of O'Charley's, 99 Restaurants and American Blue Ribbon Holdings, LLC ("Blue Ribbon"), in which we have 65.4%, 88.5% and 65.4% ownership interests, respectively. O'Charley's and its affiliates are the owners and operators of the O'Charley's restaurant concept. 99 Restaurants and its affiliates are the owners and operators of the Ninety Nine Restaurants restaurant concept. Blue Ribbon and its affiliates are the owners and operators of the Village Inn and Bakers Square food service and restaurant concepts, as well as the Legendary Baking bakery operation.
In January 2020, we began a restructuring of Blue Ribbon in order to effectuate a restructuring of the Village Inn and Bakers Square brands, including by closing certain stores just prior to the filing of voluntary chapter 11 petitions for Blue Ribbon and its subsidiaries. The filing of voluntary chapter 11 petitions does not impact O' Charley's or 99 Restaurants, which are not part of Blue Ribbon. Refer to discussion under the header Recent Developments in Item 7 of Part II and under Blue Ribbon Reorganization in Note M to the financial statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report for further information, which are incorporated by reference into this Part I, Item 1.
Corporate and Other.  This aggregation of nonreportable segment consists of our share in the operations of controlled and uncontrolled portfolio companies including our 22.7% interest in Coding Solutions, 49.0% interest in an investment fund (the "Equity Fund"), 24.8% equity interest in Triple Tree Holdings, LLC ("Triple Tree"), majority owned real estate and resort development businesses ("Cannae RE"), 18.8% voting equity interest in preferred stock of QOMPLX, Inc. ("QOMPLX") and other various majority and minority equity and debt investments.
Coding Solutions is a joint venture between Cannae, affiliates of The Carlyle Group and others which has various medical coding technology platforms and back office functions supporting the health care revenue and billing cycles and intends to focus on acquiring and operating synergistic health care services companies in the provider and payer space. See further discussion of our current year contribution of T-System Holdings, Inc. to Coding Solutions in exchange for cash and equity interests in Coding Solutions.
The Equity Fund is an investment fund designed to opportunistically trade in marketable securities.
Triple Tree is an independent, research-driven investment banking firm focused on mergers and acquisitions, financial restructuring, and principal investing services for innovative, high-growth businesses in the healthcare industry.
Cannae RE and its subsidiaries currently operate and invest in golf and real estate properties and develop, manage and operate residential and recreational properties, including a 1,800-acre ranch-style luxury resort and residential community in Oregon and an 18-hole championship golf facility in Idaho.
QOMPLX, formerly Fractal Industries, Inc., is an intelligent decision and analytics platform used by businesses for modeling and planning.
Refer to discussion under Recent Developments in Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report for further information on recent transactions, changes in our management structure, and other activity of our operating segments.
Strategy
Our strategy for the Company is to continue our activities with respect to the above described business investments to achieve superior financial performance, maximize and ultimately monetize the value of those assets and to continue to pursue similar investments in businesses and to grow and achieve superior financial performance with respect to such newly acquired businesses.
Dun & Bradstreet. We believe that Dun & Bradstreet has an attractive business model that is underpinned by highly recurring, diversified revenues, significant operating leverage, low capital requirements and strong free cash flow. The proprietary and

2


embedded nature of its data and analytics solutions and the integral role that D&B plays in its clients’ decision-making processes have translated into high client retention and revenue visibility. For example, 16 of D&B's top 20 clients by revenue for the year ended December 31, 2019, have had an average tenure with D&B of over 20 years. Dun & Bradstreet also benefits from strong operating leverage given its centralized database and solutions, which allows it to generate strong contribution margins and free cash flow.
Subsequent to the D&B Acquisition, D&B quickly began implementing changes to address operational and execution issues at D&B which led to stagnant revenue growth and declining profitability over the last decade. The D&B Investors immediately brought in a new senior leadership team which commenced a comprehensive transformation to improve and revitalize D&B's business for long-term success. The new senior leadership team saw significant opportunity to create value by transforming the organization and improving the platform with new business unit leaders, enhanced technology and data, solution innovation and a client-centric go-to-market strategy.
D&B's transformation strategy, which is well underway, is based on a proven playbook of enhancing stockholder value through organizational re-alignment and re-investment. As of December 31, 2019, these initiatives have resulted in approximately $208.0 million of net annualized run-rate savings, and D&B believes there are incremental opportunities to further rationalize its cost structure. In light of the changes that have been made or identified by the D&B Investors and D&B's seasoned management team, we believe D&B is well-positioned to execute on its near- and long-term strategies of driving stockholder value through consistent revenue growth, managing cost initiatives and innovating and improving the way it adds value and solves the increasingly challenging and complex needs of its clients.
Ceridian. Since 2016, Ceridian's business has transformed from a legacy service-bureau model into a cloud-based provider model. Ceridian's flagship cloud offering, Dayforce, is a cloud solution that meets HCM needs with one employee record and one user experience throughout the application. As evidenced by its more than 60% compound annual growth rate since 2012, we believe that the Dayforce cloud offering, built on a single database, enjoys a competitive advantage in the marketplace and is a market leader as shown by both extensive recognition and industry awards. Nucleus Research named Dayforce as the leader in both HCM technology and workforce management, based on functionality and usability. In addition, Gartner Peer Insights placed Ceridian's Dayforce offering in the leader quadrant in global payroll services, and Ventana Research found Dayforce as the leader in both usability and capability in its Value Index.
Restaurant Group. Our restaurant operations are focused in the family dining and casual dining segments of the restaurant industry. The Restaurant Group's strategy is to achieve long-term profit growth and drive increases in same store sales and guest counts. We have a highly experienced management team that is focused on enhancing the guest experience at our restaurants and building team member engagement. We also utilize a shared service platform that takes advantage of the combined back-office synergies of our restaurant operating companies. Our goal is to maintain a strong balance sheet for our Restaurant Group to provide stability in all operating environments.
We believe the Blue Ribbon Reorganization will facilitate Blue Ribbon’s Village Inn and Bakers Square restaurant brands' evolution to a healthy core of restaurants and support an approach to the brands that is most beneficial for all stakeholders.
Acquisitions, Dispositions, Minority Owned Operating Affiliates and Financings. Acquisitions are an important part of our growth strategy and dispositions are an important aspect of our strategy of returning value to shareholders. On an ongoing basis, with assistance from our advisors, we actively evaluate possible transactions, such as acquisitions and dispositions of business units and operating assets and business combination transactions.
In the future, we may seek to sell certain investments or other assets to increase our liquidity. Further, our management has stated that we may make acquisitions in lines of business that are not directly tied to, or synergistic with, our current operating segments. In the past we have obtained majority and minority investments in entities and securities where we see the potential to achieve above market returns. Fundamentally our goal is to acquire quality companies that are well-positioned in their respective industries, run by best-in-class management teams in industries that have attractive organic and acquired growth opportunities. We leverage our operational expertise and track record of growing industry leading companies and our active interaction with management of acquired companies, directly or through our board of directors, to ultimately provide value for our shareholders.
There can be no assurance that any suitable opportunities will arise or that any particular transaction will be completed. We have made a number of acquisitions and dispositions over the past several years to strengthen and expand our service offerings and customer base in our various businesses, to expand into other businesses or where we otherwise saw value, and to monetize investments in assets and businesses.
Through the date of this Annual Report, we have made significant progress both monetizing currently held investments and deploying capital toward new investments. Refer to discussion under Recent Developments in Item 7 of Part II of this Annual Report for further information.


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Intellectual Property
Dun & Bradstreet. D&B owns and controls various intellectual property rights, such as trade secrets, confidential information, trademarks, service marks, tradenames, copyrights, patents and applications to the foregoing. These rights, in the aggregate, are of material importance to Dun & Bradstreet's business. D&B believes that the Dun & Bradstreet name and related tradenames, marks and logos are also of material importance to its business. Dun & Bradstreet is licensed to use certain technology and other intellectual property rights owned and controlled by others, and other companies are licensed to use certain technology and other intellectual property rights owned and controlled by it. Dun & Bradstreet's trademarks, service marks, databases, software, copyrights, patents, patent applications and other intellectual property are proprietary and accordingly it relies on a combination of statutory (e.g., copyright, trademark, trade secret, patent, etc.) and contract and liability safeguards for protecting them throughout the world.
Dun & Bradstreet owns patents and patent applications both in the U.S. and in other selected countries. The patents and patent applications include claims which pertain to certain technologies and inventions which D&B has determined are proprietary and warrant patent protection. The protection of its innovative technology and inventions, such as its proprietary methods for data curation and identity resolution, through the filing of patent applications, is part of Dun & Bradstreet's business strategy. Filing of patent applications may or may not provide Dun & Bradstreet with a dominant position in the fields of technology. However, these patents and/or patent applications may provide Dun & Bradstreet with legal defenses should subsequent patents in these fields be issued to third-parties and later asserted against it. Where appropriate, Dun & Bradstreet may also consider asserting or cross-licensing its patents.
Ceridian. Ceridian's success depends, in part, on its ability to protect its proprietary technology and intellectual property. Ceridian relies on a combination of copyrights, trade secrets, and trademarks, as well as confidentiality and nondisclosure agreements and other contractual protections, to establish and to safeguard its intellectual property rights.
Restaurant Group. We regard our Restaurant Group's service marks, including "O'Charley's", "Ninety Nine", "Village Inn", "Legendary Baking", and "Bakers Square", and other service marks and trademarks as important factors in the marketing of our restaurants. We have also obtained trademarks for several of our brand's menu items and for various advertising slogans. We are aware of names and marks similar to our Restaurant Group's service marks and trademarks used by other persons in certain geographic areas where we have restaurants. However, we believe such uses will not adversely affect us. Our policy is to pursue registration of our marks whenever possible and to oppose vigorously any infringement of our marks.
We license the use of our registered trademarks and service marks to franchisees and third parties through franchise arrangements and licenses. The franchise and license arrangements restrict franchisees' and licensees' activities with respect to the use of our trademarks and service marks, and impose quality control standards in connection with goods and services offered in connection with the trademarks and service marks.
Seasonality
Ceridian. Ceridian has in the past and expects in the future to experience seasonal fluctuations in its revenues and new customer contracts with the fourth quarter historically being its strongest quarter for new customer contracts, renewals, and customer go-lives. Although the growth of Ceridian's cloud solutions and the ratable nature of its fees makes this seasonality less apparent in its overall results of operations, we expect Ceridian's revenue to fluctuate quarterly and to be higher in the fourth and first quarters of each year. Fourth quarter revenue is driven by year-end processing fees and Dayforce customer go-lives; and first quarter revenue is driven by revenue earned for printing of year-end tax packages.
Restaurant Group. Average weekly sales per restaurant are typically higher in the first and fourth quarters than in other quarters, and the Restaurant Group typically generates a disproportionate share of its earnings from operations in the first and fourth quarters. Holidays, severe weather and other disruptive conditions may impact sales volumes seasonally in some operating regions. Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors that are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.
Inventory 
Restaurant Group. In the restaurant group's Legendary Baking business, sales of baked goods are greatest during the holiday season in the fourth quarter. As a result of inventory requirements to meet this demand, inventory is built up over the course of the first nine months of the year.
Competition
Dun & Bradstreet. Dun & Bradstreet primarily competes on the basis of differentiated data sets, analytical capabilities, solutions, client relationships, innovation and price. D&B believes that is competes favorably in each of these categories across its business segments. D&B's competitors vary based on the client size and geographical market that its solutions cover.

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For Dun & Bradstreet's finance and risk solutions segment, its competition generally varies by client size. D&B has a leading presence in the enterprise market as clients place a high degree of value on our best-in-class commercial credit database to inform their critical decisions around the extension of credit. D&B’s main competitors in the enterprise and mid-market include Bureau van Dijk (owned by Moody’s Corporation) in Europe and Equifax and Experian in North America. In the small and mid-size company market, commercial credit health becomes increasingly tied to consumer credit health. D&B's competition in this market generally includes Equifax, Experian and other consumer credit providers that offer commercial data. Additionally, there is a fragmented tail of low cost, vertical and regionally focused point solutions in this market that may be attractive to certain clients, but lack the scale and coverage breadth to compete holistically.
For Dun & Bradstreet's sales and marketing solutions segment, its competition has historically been very fragmented with many players offering varying levels of data quantity and quality, and with data being collected in ways that may cross ethical and privacy boundaries. Dun & Bradstreet strives to protect the data and privacy of its clients and to maintain the highest standards in the ethical acquisition, aggregation, curation and delivery of data. D&B's direct competitors vary depending on use cases, such as market segmentation, digital marketing lead generation, lead enrichment, sales effectiveness and data management. In the market for contact data, D&B's competition generally includes Bureau Van Dijk, ZoomInfo and a few consultancies building bespoke solutions. For other sales and marketing solutions such as customer data platform, visitor intelligence, audience targeting and intent data, D&B faces a number of smaller competitors such as Bombora.
Overall, outside North America, D&B's competitive environment varies by region and country, and can be significantly impacted by the legislative actions of local governments, availability of data and local business preferences. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, D&B's direct competition for its finance and risk solutions segment is primarily from Bureau van Dijk, Creditsafe and Experian. Additionally, in D&B's sales and marketing solutions segment, the landscape in these markets is both localized and fragmented, where numerous local players of varying sizes compete for business. In Asia Pacific, D&B faces competition in its finance and risk solutions segment from a mix of local and global providers. D&B competes with Experian in India and a subsidiary of Experian, Sinotrust International Information & Consulting (Beijing) Co., Ltd., in China. In addition, as in the United Kingdom, D&B's sales and marketing solutions landscape throughout Asia is localized and fragmented.
Ceridian. The market for HCM technology solutions is rapidly changing, with legacy service bureau and on-premise software providers facing increased competition from emerging cloud players. Ceridian currently competes with firms that provide both integrated and point solutions for HCM. Legacy payroll service providers, such as Automatic Data Processing, provide HCM solutions primarily through service bureau models. These vendors often have more in-house resources, greater name recognition, and longer operating histories than Dayforce and may seek to expand their cloud offerings through acquisition or organic product development. Ceridian also competes with cloud-enabled client-server HCM providers, such as The Ultimate Software Group, Inc. These companies, whose products were developed over 20 years ago as on-premise solutions, have modified and redeployed their platforms as hybrid software as a service offerings. This has allowed them to transition their business model to offer hosted and cloud solutions, resulting in significantly larger customer bases. More recently, Ceridian faces competition from modern HCM providers, such as Workday, Inc., whose solutions have been specifically built as single application platforms in the cloud. In addition, Ceridian also faces competition from large, long-established enterprise application software vendors, such as Oracle Corporation and SAP SE. These companies are seeking to expand their cloud offerings through both acquisition and internal development efforts. Ceridian also competes with point solutions, such as Kronos Incorporated for workforce management and Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. for talent management.
Restaurant Group. The restaurant industry is highly competitive and is often affected by changes in consumer tastes and discretionary spending patterns; changes in general economic conditions; public safety conditions or concerns; demographic trends; weather conditions; the cost of food products, labor, energy and other operating costs; and governmental regulations. Higher labor costs due to state and local minimum wage increases and shopping pattern shifts to e-commerce and “ready to eat” grocery and convenience stores have had a negative impact on restaurant performance, particularly in the casual and family dining restaurants in which the Company operates.
The restaurant industry is also characterized by high capital investments for new restaurants and relatively high fixed or semi-variable restaurant operating expenses.  Because of the high fixed and semi-variable expenses, changes in sales in existing restaurants are generally expected to significantly affect restaurant profitability because many restaurant costs and expenses are not expected to change at the same rate as sales.  Restaurant profitability can also be negatively affected by inflationary and regulatory increases in operating costs and other factors. The most significant commodities that may affect our cost of food and beverage are beef, seafood, poultry, and dairy, which accounted for approximately half of our overall cost of food and beverage in the past. Generally, temporary increases in these costs are not passed on to guests; however, in the past, we have adjusted menu prices to compensate for increased costs of a more permanent nature. Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors that are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.

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Competitive Strengths
Proven management team.  Our Board of Directors and executive management team, led by William ("Bill") P. Foley II, has a proven track record of investment identification and management. Bill Foley has led the creation of several multi-billion dollar companies with hundreds of acquisitions across diverse platforms, including, Fidelity National Financial, Inc., Fidelity National Information Services, Inc., Black Knight, Inc., Ceridian, and FGL Holdings, Inc. Our Board of Directors and executive management's breadth of knowledge of capital markets allows us to identify companies and strategic assets with attractive value propositions, to structure investments to maximize their value, and to return the value created to shareholders. We believe the Externalization under the Management Services Agreement will enhance our executive management team’s ability to provide these services.
Information Security
We and our unconsolidated affiliates are highly dependent on information technology networks and systems to securely process, transmit and store electronic information. Attacks on information technology systems continue to grow in frequency, complexity and sophistication. Such attacks have become a point of focus for individuals, businesses and governmental entities. These attacks can create system disruptions, shutdowns or unauthorized disclosure of confidential information, including non-public personal information, consumer data and proprietary business information.
We and our unconsolidated affiliates remain focused on making strategic investments in information security to protect the clients and information systems of our operating subsidiaries and unconsolidated affiliates. This includes both capital expenditures and operating expenses on hardware, software, personnel and consulting services. As the primary products and services of our operating subsidiaries and unconsolidated affiliates evolve, we apply a comprehensive approach to the mitigation of identified security risks. We have established risk management policies, including those related to information security and cybersecurity, designed to monitor and mitigate information security related risks.
Employees
As of January 31, 2020, Cannae and our consolidated subsidiaries had 22,482 full-time equivalent employees, which includes 22,281 in our Restaurant Group and 201 in the various businesses comprising our Corporate and other segment.
None of our employees are unionized or represented by any collective agency. We believe that our relations with employees are generally good.
Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information
 The statements contained in this Annual Report or in our other documents or in oral presentations or other statements made by our management that are not purely historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the "Exchange Act") including statements regarding our expectations, hopes, intentions, or strategies regarding the future. These statements relate to, among other things, future financial and operating results of the Company. In many cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue,” or the negative of these terms and other comparable terminology. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these statements as a result of a number of factors, including, but not limited to the following:
changes in general economic, business, and political conditions, including changes in the financial markets;
compliance with extensive government regulation of our operating subsidiaries and adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations or in their application by regulators;
the effects of the Externalization and the Management Services Agreement;
our ability to successfully execute the Blue Ribbon Reorganization;
loss of key personnel that could negatively affect our financial results and impair our operating abilities;
our potential inability to find suitable acquisition candidates, as well as the risks associated with acquisitions in lines of business that will not necessarily be limited to our traditional areas of focus, or difficulties integrating acquisitions;
other risks detailed in "Risk Factors" below and elsewhere in this document and in our other filings with the SEC.
 We are not under any obligation (and expressly disclaim any such obligation) to update or alter our forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. You should carefully consider the possibility that actual results may differ materially from our forward-looking statements.

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 Additional Information
The Company’s Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to reports filed pursuant to Sections 13(a) and 15(d) of the Exchange Act, are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). The Company is subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and files or furnishes reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
 Our website address is www.cannaeholdings.com. We make available free of charge on or through our website our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. However, the information found on our website is not part of this or any other report.
Item 1A.      Risk Factors
Risks Relating to the Company's Structure 
We may become subject to the Investment Company Act of 1940.
We do not believe that we are subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the "40 Act"). We were formed for the purpose of effecting the Split-Off and for controlling, operating or holding, as applicable, the FNFV Group's business and investments, including the portfolio companies. We engage primarily in the business of managing and operating our controlled subsidiaries. Our officers and any employees who provide services to us pursuant to the terms of our corporate services agreement with FNF devote their activities to the businesses of these portfolio companies. Our interest in the portfolio companies comprises substantially all of our assets and substantially all of our income, if any, is derived from restaurant revenue from our Restaurant Group, the revenue of T-System, and dividends and other distributions made on our interests in portfolio companies. Based on these factors, we believe that we are not an investment company under the 40 Act, including under Section 3(b)(1) of the 40 Act. If, at any time, we become primarily engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities, we could become subject to regulation under the 40 Act. Following any such change in our business and after giving effect to any applicable grace periods, we may be required to register as an investment company, which could result in significant registration and compliance costs, could require changes to our corporate governance structure and financial reporting, and could restrict our activities going forward. In addition, if we were to become inadvertently subject to the 40 Act, any violation of the 40 Act could subject us to material adverse consequences, including potentially significant regulatory penalties and the possibility that certain of our contracts would be deemed unenforceable.
Risks Relating to the Externalization and Our Manager
The Management Service Agreement was negotiated between related parties and the terms, including fees payable, may not be as favorable to us as if it were negotiated with an unaffiliated third party.
Because our Manager is owned by certain of our directors and executive officers, the Management Services Agreement was developed by related parties, although our independent directors reviewed and approved the Management Services Agreement. The terms of the Management Services Agreement, including fees payable, may not reflect the terms we may have received if it was negotiated with an unrelated third party. In addition, particularly as a result of our relationship with the principal owners of the Manager, who are certain directors and members of our management team, our independent directors may determine that it is in the best interests of our shareholders not to enforce, or to enforce less vigorously, our rights under the Management Services Agreement because of our desire to maintain our ongoing relationship with our Manager.
Our executive officers, directors and Manager may allocate some of their time to other businesses, thereby causing conflicts of interest in their determination as to how much time to devote to our affairs, which may materially adversely affect our results of operations.
While the members of our management team anticipate devoting a substantial amount of their time to the affairs of the Company, our executive officers, directors, Manager and other members of our management team may engage in other business activities. This may result in a conflict of interest in allocating their time between our operations and our management and the operations of other businesses. Their other business endeavors may involve related or unrelated parties. Conflicts of interest that arise over the allocation of time may not always be resolved in our favor and may materially adversely affect our results of operations. See the section entitled “Factors Relating to the Split-Off” included in Item 1A of our Annual Report for further discussion of risks associated with our split-off from, and relationship with, FNF.
Conflicts of interest could arise in connection with certain of our directors’ and executive officers’ discharge of fiduciary duties to our shareholders.
Certain of our directors and executive officers are members or employees of the Manager. Such persons, by virtue of their positions with us, have fiduciary duties to us and our shareholders. The duties of such persons as directors or executive officers

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to us and our shareholders may conflict with the interests of such persons in their capacities as members or employees of the Manager.
Our Manager and members of our management team may engage in activities that compete with us or our businesses.
While the members of our management team intend to devote a substantial majority of their time to the affairs of the Company, and while our Manager currently does not manage any other businesses that are in lines of business similar to our businesses, neither our management team nor our Manager is expressly prohibited from investing in or managing other entities, including those that are in the same or similar line of business as our businesses, or required to present any particular investment or business opportunity to the Company. In this regard, the Management Services Agreement and the obligation thereunder to provide management services to us will not create a mutually exclusive relationship between our Manager, on the one hand, and the Company, on the other.
We cannot remove our Manager solely for poor performance, which could limit our ability to improve our performance and could adversely affect the market price of our shares.
Under the terms of the Management Services Agreement, our Manager may not be removed as a result of underperformance. Instead, the Company’s board of directors may only remove our Manager in certain limited circumstances or upon a vote by 75% of the Company’s board of directors and 75% of our shareholders to terminate the Management Services Agreement. This limitation could adversely affect the market price of our shares.
Our Manager can resign on 180 days’ notice, subject to a limited extension, and we may not be able to find a suitable replacement, resulting in a disruption in our operations that could materially adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations as well as the market price of our shares.
Our Manager has the right, under the Management Services Agreement, to resign at any time on 180 days’ written notice, whether we have found a replacement or not, subject to the Company’s right to extend such period by an additional 180 days or until a replacement manager has been in place for 30 days, if no replacement manager has been found by the 150th day following the Manager’s notice of resignation. If our Manager resigns, we may not be able to contract with a new manager or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms within 180 days (subject to possible extension), or at all, in which case our operations are likely to experience a disruption; our financial condition, business and results of operations as well as our ability to pay distributions are likely to be adversely affected; and the market price of our shares may decline. In addition, the coordination of our internal management, acquisition activities and supervision of our businesses is likely to suffer if we are unable to identify and reach an agreement with a single institution or group of executives having the expertise possessed by our Manager. Even if we are able to retain comparable management, whether internal or external, the integration of such management and their lack of familiarity with our businesses may result in additional costs and time delays that could materially adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.
We must pay our Manager the management fee regardless of our performance.
Our Manager is entitled to receive a management fee that is based on our cost of invested capital, as defined in the Management Services Agreement, regardless of the performance of our businesses. The calculation of the management fee is unrelated to the Company’s results of operations. As a result, the management fee may incentivize our Manager to increase the amount of invested capital.
We cannot determine the amount of the management fee that will be paid over time with any certainty, nor are we able to determine with any certainty the amount of carried interest that will be paid over time, and our payment of such fees and carried interest to the Manager may significantly reduce the amount of cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
Under the Management Services Agreement, the Company will be obligated to pay a management fee to and, subject to certain exceptions, reimburse the costs and out-of-pocket expenses of our Manager incurred on behalf of the Company in connection with the provision of services to the Company. The management fee is calculated by reference to the Company’s cost of invested capital, which will be impacted by the acquisition or disposition of, and additional capital contributions and investments in, businesses, which can be significantly influenced by our Manager, as well as the performance of our businesses and other businesses we may acquire in the future. Changes in cost of invested capital and in the resulting management fee could be significant, resulting in a material adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations. In addition, if the performance of the Company declines, assuming cost of invested capital remains the same, management fees will increase as a percentage of the Company’s net income.
Furthermore, we cannot determine the amount of carried interest with respect to liquidity events involving investments of the Company that will be paid over time with any certainty. Such determination would be dependent on the potential sale proceeds received for any of our businesses and the performance of the Company and its businesses over a multi-year period of time, among other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty at this time. Such factors may have a significant impact on the amount of any carried interest to be paid to the Manager. Likewise, such determination would be dependent on whether certain hurdles were

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surpassed giving rise to a payment of carried interest. Any amounts paid in respect of the carried interest are unrelated to the management fee earned for performance of services under the Management Services Agreement.
While it is difficult to quantify with any certainty the actual amount of any such payments in the future, such amounts could be substantial. The management fee and carried interest will be payment obligations of the Company and, as a result, will be paid, along with other Company obligations, prior to the payment of distributions to shareholders. As a result the payment of these amounts may significantly reduce the amount of cash flow available for distribution to our shareholders. If we do not have sufficient liquid assets to pay the management fee and carried interest when such payments are due, we may be required to liquidate assets or incur debt in order to make such payments. This circumstance could materially adversely affect our liquidity and ability to make distributions to our shareholders.
Our profit allocation may induce our Manager to make suboptimal decisions regarding our operations.
Our Manager will receive carried interest based on profits in excess of an annualized hurdle rate upon a liquidity event involving a Company investment. In this respect, a calculation and payment of carried interest may be triggered upon the sale of one of our businesses. As a result, our Manager may be incentivized to recommend the sale of one or more of our businesses to our Board of Directors at a time that may not be optimal for our shareholders.
Risks Relating to the Restaurant Group
General macroeconomic factors, including unemployment, energy prices and interest rates, and certain economic and business factors specific to the restaurant and bakery industries that are largely out of our restaurant businesses' control may materially and adversely affect consumer behavior and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
General economic conditions may materially and adversely affect the financial condition and results of operations of our restaurant businesses, which we also refer to as our Restaurant Group companies. Recessionary economic cycles, a protracted economic slowdown, a worsening economy, increased unemployment, increased energy prices, rising interest rates, a downgrade of the United States ("U.S.") government's long-term credit rating, financial market volatility and unpredictability or other national, regional and local regulatory and economic conditions or other industry-wide cost pressures could affect consumer behavior and spending for restaurant dining occasions and result in increased pressure with respect to our Restaurant Group companies' pricing, guest count levels and commodity costs, which could lead to a further decline in our Restaurant Group companies' sales and earnings, beyond those that resulted in the Blue Ribbon Reorganization. Job losses, foreclosures, bankruptcies and falling home prices could cause customers to make fewer discretionary purchases, and any significant decrease in our Restaurant Group companies' guest counts or profit will negatively impact their financial performance. In addition, if gasoline, natural gas, electricity and other energy costs increase, or credit card, home mortgage and other borrowing costs increase with rising interest rates, our Restaurant Group companies' customers may have lower disposable income and reduce the frequency with which they dine at restaurants, may spend less during each visit at our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants or may choose more inexpensive restaurants. These factors could also cause the Restaurant Group companies to, among other things, reduce the number and frequency of new restaurant openings, close additional restaurants, delay the reimaging of the Restaurant Group companies' existing restaurant locations, or impede our ability to successfully execute, and achieve the goals contemplated by, the Blue Ribbon Reorganization.
Furthermore, we cannot predict the effects that actual or threatened armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, efforts to combat terrorism, including military action against any foreign state or local group located in a foreign state, heightened security requirements on local, regional, national or international economies or a failure to protect information systems for critical infrastructure, such as the electrical grid and telecommunications systems, could have on the Restaurant Group companies' operations, the economy or consumer confidence generally. Any of these events could affect consumer spending patterns or result in increased costs for the Restaurant Group companies due to security measures.
The business results of our Restaurant Group companies depend on a number of industry-specific factors as well, many of which are beyond the Restaurant Group companies' control. The full service dining sector of the restaurant industry is affected by seasonal fluctuation of sales volumes, consumer confidence, consumer spending patterns and consumer preferences, including changes in consumer tastes and dietary habits, and the level of consumer acceptance of our restaurant brands. The performance of individual restaurants may also be materially and adversely affected by factors applicable to those restaurants, such as demographic trends, severe weather, traffic patterns and the type, number and location of competing restaurants.
Unfavorable changes in the above factors or in other business and economic conditions affecting our Restaurant Group companies' customers or industry could increase costs, reduce guest counts in some or all restaurants or impose practical limits on pricing, any of which could lower profit margins and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.


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The Restaurant Group companies face significant competition for customers, real estate and employees and competitive pressure to adapt to changes in conditions driving customer demand. The Restaurant Group companies' inability to compete effectively may affect guest counts, sales and profit margins, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The restaurant industry is intensely competitive with a substantial number of restaurant operators that compete directly and indirectly with the Restaurant Group companies with respect to price, service, ambiance, brand, customer service, dining experience, location, food quality and variety and value perception of menu items and there are other well established competitors with substantially greater financial and other resources than the Restaurant Group companies. Some of our Restaurant Group companies' competitors advertise on national television, which may provide customers with greater awareness and name recognition than our Restaurant Group companies can achieve through their advertising efforts. There is also active competition for management personnel and attractive suitable real estate sites. Consumer tastes and perceptions, nutritional and dietary trends, guest count patterns and the type, number and location of competing restaurants often affect the restaurant business, and our Restaurant Group companies' competitors may react more efficiently and effectively to those conditions. For instance, prevailing health or dietary preferences or perceptions of our Restaurant Group companies' products may cause consumers to avoid certain menu items or products our Restaurant Group companies offer in favor of foods that are perceived as more healthy, and such choices by consumers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, our Restaurant Group companies face growing competition from the supermarket industry, with the improvement of their "convenient meals" in the deli and prepared food sections, from quick service and fast casual restaurants and online food delivery services as a result of food and beverage offerings by those food providers. As our Restaurant Group companies' competitors expand operations in markets where our restaurant businesses operate or expect to operate, we expect competition to intensify. If our Restaurant Group companies are unable to continue to compete effectively, including following the completion of the Blue Ribbon Reorganization, their guest counts, sales and profit margins could decline, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Historically, customer spending patterns for the Restaurant Group companies' restaurants are generally highest in the fourth quarter of the year and lowest in the third quarter of the year. Sales activity during the holidays may affect seasonal sales volumes in some of the markets in which our restaurant businesses operate. The quarterly results of our Restaurant Group companies have been and will continue to be affected by the timing of new restaurant openings and their associated costs (which are often materially greater during the first several months of operation than thereafter), restaurant closures and exit-related costs, labor availability and costs for hourly and management personnel, profitability of restaurants, especially in new markets, trends in comparable restaurant sales, changes in borrowings and interest rates, changes in consumer preferences and competitive conditions, fluctuations in food and commodity prices, fluctuations in costs attributable to public company compliance and impairments of goodwill, intangible assets and property, fixtures and equipment. As a result of these and other factors, the Restaurant Group companies' financial results for any quarter may not be indicative of the results that may be achieved for a full fiscal year.
If our restaurant businesses are unable to effectively grow revenue and profitability at certain of their locations, our Restaurant Group companies may be required to record additional impairment charges to their restaurant assets, the carrying value of their goodwill or other intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our Restaurant Group companies assess the potential impairment of their long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of the assets or asset group may not be recoverable. Factors considered include, but are not limited to, significant underperformance relative to historical or projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner in which an asset is being used, an expectation that an asset will be disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life and significant negative industry or economic trends. Our Restaurant Group companies annually review and compare the carrying value of intangible assets, including goodwill, to the fair value. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we recorded $10.4 million and $26.7 million, respectively, of impairment to goodwill in our Restaurant Group segment as a result of deteriorating operating results and cash flow resulting from declining same store sales and increased costs. In addition, for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, we recorded $17.1 million, $5.8 million and $2.9 million, respectively, of impairment expense related to other intangible assets within our Restaurant Group.
We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any future recorded impairment to our Restaurant Group companies' assets. Should the value of goodwill or other intangible or long-lived assets become further impaired, there could be a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Increased commodity, energy and other costs could decrease our Restaurant Group companies' profit margins or cause the Restaurant Group companies to limit or otherwise modify their menus, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The cost, availability and quality of ingredients restaurant operations use to prepare their food is subject to a range of factors, many of which are beyond their control. A significant component of our restaurant businesses' costs will be related to food

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commodities, including beef, pork, chicken, seafood, poultry, dairy products, oils, produce, fruit, flour and other related costs such as energy and transportation over which we may have little control, which can be subject to significant price fluctuations due to seasonal shifts, climate conditions, industry demand, changes in international commodity markets and other factors. If there is a substantial increase in prices for these commodities, our Restaurant Group companies' results of operations may be negatively affected. In addition, the Restaurant Group companies' restaurants are dependent upon frequent deliveries of perishable food products that meet certain specifications. Shortages or interruptions in the supply of perishable food products caused by unanticipated demand, problems in production or distribution, disease or food-borne illnesses, inclement weather or other conditions could adversely affect the availability, quality, and cost of ingredients, which would likely lower revenues, damage the Restaurant Group companies' reputation or otherwise harm our business.
The Restaurant Group companies are also subject to the general risks of inflation. The performance of our Restaurant Group companies' business is also adversely affected by increases in the price of utilities, such as natural gas, whether as a result of inflation, shortages or interruptions in supply, or otherwise. The Restaurant Group companies' business will also incur significant costs for insurance, labor, marketing, taxes, real estate, borrowing and litigation, all of which could increase due to inflation, changes in laws and regulations, competition or other events beyond the Restaurant Group companies' control.
Negative customer experiences or negative publicity surrounding our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants or other restaurants could adversely affect sales in one or more of our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants and make our concepts less valuable, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Because we believe our Restaurant Group companies' success depends significantly on their ability to provide exceptional food quality, outstanding service and an excellent overall dining experience, adverse publicity, whether or not accurate, relating to food quality, public health concerns, illness, safety, injury or government or industry findings concerning our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants, restaurants operated by other food service providers or others across the food industry supply chain could affect our Restaurant Group companies more than it would other restaurants that compete primarily on price or other factors. If customers perceive or experience a reduction in the food quality, service or ambiance at our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants or in any way believe our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants have failed to deliver a consistently positive experience, the value and popularity of one or more of our Restaurant Group companies' concepts could suffer. Further, because our restaurant businesses rely heavily on "word-of-mouth," as opposed to more conventional mediums of advertisement, to establish concept recognition, our restaurant businesses may be more adversely affected by negative customer experiences than other dining establishments, including those of our restaurant businesses' competitors.
Our restaurant businesses could suffer due to reduced demand for our restaurant businesses' brands or specific menu offerings if our restaurant businesses are the subject of negative publicity or litigation regarding allegations of food-related contaminations or illnesses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Food safety is a top priority, and our Restaurant Group companies dedicate substantial resources to ensuring that their customers enjoy safe, quality food products. Food-related contaminations and illnesses may be caused by a variety of food-borne pathogens, such as e-coli or salmonella, which are frequently carried on unwashed fruits and vegetables, from a variety of illnesses transmitted by restaurant workers, such as hepatitis A, which may not be diagnosed prior to being infectious, and from contamination of food by foreign substances. Contamination and food borne illness incidents could also be caused at the point of source or by food suppliers and distributors. As a result, we cannot control all of the potential sources of contamination or illness that can be contained in or transmitted from our Restaurant Group companies' food. Regardless of the source or cause, any report of food-borne illnesses or other food safety issues including food tampering or contamination, at one of our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants could adversely affect the reputation of our Restaurant Group companies' brands and have a negative impact on their sales. Even instances of food-borne illness, food tampering or food contamination occurring solely at restaurants of our Restaurant Group companies' competitors or at one of our Restaurant Group companies' suppliers could result in negative publicity about the food service industry generally and adversely impact our Restaurant Group companies' sales.
If any person becomes injured or ill, or alleges becoming injured or ill, as a result of eating our Restaurant Group companies' food, our Restaurant Group companies may temporarily close some restaurants or their bakery facilities, which would decrease their revenues, and our restaurant businesses may be liable for damages or be subject to governmental regulatory action, either of which could have long-lasting, negative effects on our restaurant businesses' reputation, financial condition and results of operations, regardless of whether the allegations are valid or whether our restaurant businesses are found liable. The occurrence of food-borne illnesses or food safety issues could also adversely affect the price and availability of affected ingredients, resulting in higher costs and lower margins.
Our Restaurant Group companies' failure to comply with government regulation, and the costs of compliance or non-compliance, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Restaurant Group companies are subject to various federal, state and local laws and regulations affecting their business. Each of their restaurants and their bakery division are subject to licensing and regulation by a number of federal, state and local

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governmental authorities, which may include, among others, alcoholic beverage control, health and safety, nutritional menu labeling, health care, environmental and fire agencies. Difficulty in obtaining or failure to obtain the required licenses, including liquor or other licenses, permits or approval could delay or prevent the development of a new restaurant in a particular area. Additionally, difficulties or inabilities to retain or renew licenses, or increased compliance costs due to changed regulations, could adversely affect operations at existing restaurants.
While only approximately 9% of the Restaurant Group companies' consolidated restaurant sales in 2019 were attributable to the sale of alcoholic beverages, approximately 19% of the restaurant sales at Ninety Nine were attributable to the sale of alcoholic beverages in 2019. Alcoholic beverage control regulations require each restaurant to apply to a state authority and, in certain locations, county or municipal authorities for a license or permit to sell alcoholic beverages on the premises and to provide service for extended hours and on Sundays. Typically, licenses must be renewed annually and may be revoked or suspended for cause at any time. Alcoholic beverage control regulations relate to numerous aspects of daily operations of the Restaurant Group companies' restaurants, including minimum ages of patrons and employees, hours of operation, advertising, training, wholesale purchasing, inventory control and the handling, storage and dispensation of alcoholic beverages. The failure of a restaurant to obtain or retain liquor or food service licenses would adversely affect the restaurant's operations.
 There is also a potential for increased regulation of certain food establishments in the U.S., where compliance with Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points ("HACCP") management systems may now be required. HACCP refers to a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of potential hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. Many states have required restaurants to develop and implement HACCP programs and the U.S. government continues to expand the sectors of the food industry that must adopt and implement HACCP programs. For example, the Food Safety Modernization Act, signed into law in January 2011, granted the FDA new authority regarding the safety of the entire food system, including through increased inspections and mandatory food recalls. We anticipate that the new requirements may impact the restaurant industry. Additionally, our Restaurant Group companies' suppliers may initiate or otherwise be subject to food recalls that may impact the availability of certain products, result in adverse publicity or require the Restaurant Group companies' to take actions that could be costly for them or otherwise harm their business.
The Restaurant Group companies are subject to laws and regulations relating to information security, privacy, cashless payments, gift cards and consumer credit, protection and fraud, and any failure or perceived or alleged failure to comply with these laws and regulations could harm their reputation or lead to litigation, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The impact of current laws and regulations, the effect of future changes in laws or regulations that impose additional requirements and the consequences of litigation relating to current or future laws and regulations, or an insufficient or ineffective response to significant regulatory or public policy issues, could increase our Restaurant Group companies' cost structure or lessen their operational efficiencies and talent availability, and therefore have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Failure to comply with the laws and regulatory requirements of federal, state and local authorities could result in, among other things, revocation of required licenses, administrative enforcement actions, fines and civil and criminal liability. Compliance with these laws and regulations can be costly and can increase the Restaurant Group companies' exposure to litigation or governmental investigations or proceedings.
Restaurant companies, including our restaurant companies, are the target of claims and lawsuits from time to time in the ordinary course of business. Proceedings of this nature, if successful, could result in our payment of substantial costs and damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our Restaurant Group companies and other restaurant companies have been subject to claims and lawsuits alleging various matters from time to time in the ordinary course of business, including those that follow. Claims and lawsuits may include class action lawsuits, alleging violations of federal and state laws regarding workplace and employment matters, discrimination and similar matters. A number of these lawsuits have resulted in the payment of substantial damages by the defendants. Similar lawsuits have been instituted from time to time alleging violations of various federal and state wage and hour laws regarding, among other things, employee meal deductions, the sharing of tips amongst certain employees, overtime eligibility of assistant managers and failure to pay for all hours worked. Although our restaurant businesses will maintain what we believe to be adequate levels of insurance, insurance may not be available at all or in sufficient amounts to cover any liabilities with respect to these matters. Accordingly, if our restaurant businesses are required to pay substantial damages and expenses as a result of these types or other lawsuits, such payments or expenses could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.
Occasionally, our Restaurant Group companies' customers may file complaints or lawsuits against the Restaurant Group companies alleging that they are responsible for some illness or injury the customers suffered at or after a visit to one of the Restaurant Group companies' restaurants, including actions seeking damages resulting from food-borne illness and relating to notices with respect to chemicals contained in food products required under state law. Our Restaurant Group companies may also be subject to a variety of other claims from third parties arising in the ordinary course of their business, including personal injury

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claims, contract claims and claims alleging violations of federal and state laws. In addition, most of our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants are subject to state "dram shop" or similar laws which generally allow a person to sue our restaurant businesses if that person was injured by a legally intoxicated person who was wrongfully served alcoholic beverages at one of our Restaurant Group companies' restaurants. The restaurant industry has also been subject to a growing number of claims that the menus and actions of restaurant chains have led to the obesity of certain of their customers. In addition, the Restaurant Group companies may also be subject to lawsuits from their employees or others alleging violations of federal and state laws regarding workplace and employment matters, discrimination and similar matters. A number of these lawsuits in the restaurant industry have resulted in the payment of substantial damages by the defendants.
Additionally, certain of the Restaurant Group companies' tax returns and employment practices are subject to audits by the IRS and various state tax authorities. Such audits could result in disputes regarding tax matters that could lead to litigation that would be costly to defend or could result in the payment of additional taxes, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Regardless of whether any claims against the Restaurant Group companies are valid or whether they are liable, claims may be expensive to defend and may divert resources away from their operations. In addition, such claims may generate negative publicity, which could reduce customer traffic and sales. Although our restaurant businesses will maintain what they believe to be adequate levels of insurance, insurance may not be available at all or in sufficient amounts to cover any liabilities with respect to these or other matters. Defense costs, even for unfounded claims, or a judgment or other liability in excess of our restaurant businesses' insurance coverage for any claims or any adverse publicity resulting from claims could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The Restaurant Group companies rely heavily on information technology and any material failure, interruption, or security breach in their systems could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Restaurant Group companies rely heavily on information technology systems across their operations and corporate functions, including for order and delivery from suppliers and distributors, point-of-sale processing in their restaurants, management of their supply chains, payment of obligations, collection of cash, bakery production, data warehousing to support analytics, finance or accounting systems, labor optimization tools, gift cards, online business and various other processes and transactions, including the storage of employee and customer information. The Restaurant Group companies' ability to effectively manage their business and coordinate the production, distribution and sale of their products will depend significantly on the reliability and capacity of these systems. In 2015, the Restaurant Group companies upgraded their information systems using a third-party provider. However, the failure of these systems to operate effectively, maintenance problems or problems with transitioning to upgraded or replacement systems could cause delays in product sales and reduced efficiency of our restaurant businesses' operations, and significant capital investments could be required to remediate the problem.
The regulatory environment surrounding information security and privacy is increasingly demanding, with the frequent imposition of new and constantly changing requirements. Compliance with these requirements may result in cost increases due to necessary systems changes and the development of new administrative processes. In addition, customers and employees have a high expectation that our restaurant businesses will adequately protect their personal information. The majority of our restaurant businesses' restaurant sales are by credit or debit cards. We and other restaurants and retailers have experienced security breaches in which credit and debit card information of their customers has been stolen.
In addition, any breach in customer payment information could result in investigations by the U.S. Secret Service Electronic Crimes Task Force ("ECTF") and increased cost in our restaurant businesses' efforts to cooperate with the ECTF.
The Restaurant Group companies also maintain certain personal information regarding their employees. In addition to government investigations, the Restaurant Group companies may in the future become subject to lawsuits or other proceedings for purportedly fraudulent transactions arising out of the actual or alleged theft of their customers' credit or debit card information or if customer or employee information is obtained by unauthorized persons or used inappropriately. If the Restaurant Group companies fail to comply with these laws and regulations or experience a significant breach of customer, employee or company data, their reputation could be damaged and they could experience lost sales, fines or lawsuits. Additionally, if a person is able to circumvent the security measures intended to protect our Restaurant Group companies' employee or customer private data, he or she could destroy or steal valuable information and disrupt our restaurant businesses' operations. The Restaurant Group companies may also be required to incur additional costs to modify or enhance their systems in order to prevent or remediate any such attacks.
The success of the Restaurant Group depends, in part, on its intellectual property, which we may be unable to protect.
We regard our Restaurant Group's service marks, including "O'Charley's", "Ninety Nine", "Village Inn", "Legendary Baking", and "Bakers Square", and other service marks and trademarks as important factors in the marketing of our restaurants. We have also obtained trademarks for several of our brand's menu items and for various advertising slogans. We are aware of names and marks similar to our Restaurant Group's service marks and trademarks used by other persons in certain geographic areas where

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we have restaurants. We believe such uses will not adversely affect us and our policy is to pursue registration of our marks whenever possible and to oppose vigorously any infringement of our marks.
We license the use of our registered trademarks and service marks to franchisees and third parties through franchise arrangements and licenses. The franchise and license arrangements restrict franchisees' and licensees' activities with respect to the use of our trademarks and service marks, and impose quality control standards in connection with goods and services offered in connection with the trademarks and service marks.
Occasionally, third parties may assert that we are, or may be, infringing on or misappropriating their intellectual property rights. In these cases, we intend to defend against claims or negotiate licenses when we consider these actions appropriate. Intellectual property cases are uncertain and involve complex legal and factual questions. If we become involved in this type of litigation, it could consume significant resources and divert our attention from business operations.
If we are found to infringe on the intellectual property rights of others, we could incur significant damages, be enjoined from continuing to use certain marks, or be required to obtain a license to continue using the affected marketing and promotional materials. A license could be very expensive to obtain or may not be available at all. Similarly, changing our marketing plan to avoid infringing the rights of others may be costly or impracticable.
We are subject to risks and uncertainties associated with the Blue Ribbon Reorganization
On January 27, 2020, Blue Ribbon, which owns the Village Inn, Bakers Square and Legendary Baking concepts, and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, filed voluntary petitions for relief under chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (the "Blue Ribbon Reorganization"). Blue Ribbon is subject to risks and uncertainties associated with the Blue Ribbon Reorganization, including but not limited to (i) its ability to maintain relationships with its suppliers, service providers, customers, employees and other third parties, (ii) the ability of third parties to seek and obtain court approval to terminate contracts and other agreements with Blue Ribbon, (iii) the actions and decisions of Blue Ribbons' creditors and other third parties who have interests in the Blue Ribbon Reorganization that may be inconsistent with our plans, (iv) limitations on Blue Ribbons operating flexibility during the proceedings and (v) our ability to compromise certain claims through the Blue Ribbon Reorganization. While we do not expect the Blue Ribbon Reorganization to have a material adverse effect on the Company, adverse changes in facts and circumstances as the Blue Ribbon Reorganization progresses could change that assertion and result in a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Relating to the Company's Investment in Ceridian
An information security breach of Ceridian's systems or the loss of, or unauthorized access to, customer information, failure to comply with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission’s (“FTC”) ongoing consent order regarding data protection, or a system disruption could have a material adverse effect on our business, market brand, financial condition, and results of operations.
Ceridian's business is dependent on its payroll, transaction, financial, accounting, and other data processing systems. Ceridian relies on these systems to process, on a daily and time sensitive basis, a large number of complicated transactions. Ceridian electronically receives, processes, stores, and transmits data and personally identifiable information (“PII”) about its customers and their employees, as well as its vendors and other business partners, including names, social security numbers, and checking account numbers. Ceridian keeps this information confidential. However, Ceridian's websites, networks, applications and technologies, and other information systems may be targeted for sabotage, disruption, or data misappropriation. The uninterrupted operation of Ceridian's information systems and Ceridian's ability to maintain the confidentiality of PII and other customer and individual information that resides on its systems are critical to the successful operation of Ceridian's business. While Ceridian has information security and business continuity programs, these plans may not be sufficient to ensure the uninterrupted operation of its systems or to prevent unauthorized access to the systems by unauthorized third parties. Because techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and may not be recognized until launched against a target, Ceridian may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures. These concerns about information security are increased with the mounting sophistication of social engineering. Ceridian's network security hardening may be bypassed by phishing and other social engineering techniques that seek to use end user behaviors to distribute computer viruses and malware into its systems, which might disrupt Ceridian's delivery of services and make them unavailable, and might also result in the disclosure or misappropriation of PII or other confidential or sensitive information. In addition, a significant cyber security breach could prevent or delay Ceridian's ability to process payment transactions.
Any information security breach in Ceridian's business processes or of its processing systems has the potential to impact its customer information and its financial reporting capabilities, which could result in the potential loss of business and Ceridian's ability to accurately report financial results. If any of these systems fail to operate properly or become disabled even for a brief period of time, Ceridian could potentially miss a critical filing period, resulting in potential fees and penalties, or lose control of customer data, all of which could result in financial loss, a disruption of Ceridian's businesses, liability to customers, regulatory intervention, or damage to its reputation. The continued occurrence of high-profile data breaches provides evidence of an external environment increasingly hostile to information security. If Ceridian's security measures are breached as a result of third party

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action, employee or subcontractor error, malfeasance or otherwise, and, as a result, someone obtains unauthorized access to customer data, Ceridian's reputation may be damaged, its business may suffer, and Ceridian could incur significant liability. Ceridian may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period of time. Techniques used to obtain unauthorized access or to sabotage systems change frequently and are growing increasingly sophisticated. As a result, Ceridian may be unable to anticipate these techniques or to implement adequate preventative measures.
This environment demands that Ceridian continuously improve its design and coordination of security controls throughout the company. Despite these efforts, it is possible that Ceridian's security controls over data, training, and other practices it follows may not prevent the improper disclosure of PII or other confidential information. Any issue of data privacy as it relates to unauthorized access to or loss of customer and/or employee information could result in the potential loss of business, damage to Ceridian's market reputation, litigation, and regulatory investigation and penalties. Maintaining, updating, monitoring, and revising an information security program in an effort to ensure that it remains reasonable and appropriate in light of changes in security threats, changes in technology, and security vulnerabilities that arise from legacy systems is time-consuming and complex, and is an ongoing effort.
There may be other such security vulnerabilities that come to Ceridian's attention. The independent third party that reviews Ceridian's security program pursuant to the FTC consent order may determine that the existence of vulnerabilities in its security controls or the failure to remedy them in a timeframe they deem appropriate means that its security program does not provide a reasonable level of assurance that the security, confidentiality, and integrity of PII is protected by Ceridian (or that there was a failure to protect at some point in the reporting period). While Ceridian has taken and continues to take steps to ensure compliance with the consent order, if they are determined not to be in compliance with the consent order, or if any new breaches of security occur, the FTC may take enforcement actions or other parties may initiate a lawsuit. Any such resulting fines and penalties could have a material adverse effect on Ceridian's liquidity and financial results, and any reputational damage therefrom could adversely affect Ceridian's relationships with its existing customers and its ability to attain new customers. Ceridian's continued investment in the security of its technology systems, continued efforts to improve the controls within its technology systems, business processes improvements and the enhancements to its culture of information security may not successfully prevent attempts to breach Ceridian's security or unauthorized access to PII or other confidential, sensitive or proprietary information. In addition, in the event of a catastrophic occurrence, either natural or man-made, Ceridian's ability to protect its infrastructure, including PII and other customer data, and to maintain ongoing operations could be significantly impaired. Ceridian's business continuity and disaster recovery plans and strategies may not be successful in mitigating the effects of a catastrophic occurrence. Insurance may be inadequate or may not be available in the future on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, Ceridian's insurance policies may not cover all claims made against them, and defending a suit, regardless of its merit, could be costly and divert management’s attention. If Ceridian's security is breached, if PII or other confidential information is accessed, if Ceridian fails to comply with the consent order or if Ceridian experiences a catastrophic occurrence, it could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, and results of operations, and ultimately the value of our investment in Ceridian.
Ceridian's solutions and business are subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws and regulations, including those regarding privacy, data protection, and information security. Any failure by Ceridian or its third party service providers, as well as the failure of its platform or services, to comply with applicable laws and regulations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Ceridian is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws and regulations, including regulation by various federal government agencies, including the FTC, and state and local agencies. The United States and various state and foreign governments have adopted or proposed limitations on, or requirements regarding, the collection, distribution, use, security, and storage of PII of individuals; and the FTC and many state attorneys general are applying federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards on the online collection, use and dissemination of data. Self-regulatory obligations, other industry standards, policies, and other legal obligations may apply to Ceridian's collection, distribution, use, security, or storage of PII or other data relating to individuals. In addition, most states and some foreign governments have enacted laws requiring companies to notify individuals of data security breaches involving certain types of PII. These obligations may be interpreted and applied in an inconsistent manner from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with one another, other regulatory requirements, or Ceridian's internal practices. Any failure or perceived failure by Ceridian to comply with U.S., E.U., or other foreign privacy or security laws, regulations, policies, industry standards, or legal obligations, or any security incident that results in the unauthorized access to, or acquisition, release, or transfer of, PII may result in governmental enforcement actions, litigation, fines and penalties, or adverse publicity and could cause Ceridian's customers to lose trust in it, which could harm its reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We expect that there will continue to be new proposed laws, regulations, and industry standards concerning privacy, data protection and information security in the United States, Canada, the European Union, and other jurisdictions, and we cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, regulations, and standards may have on Ceridian's business. For example, in May 2018, the General Data Protection Regulation came into force, bringing with it a complete overhaul of E.U. data protection laws: the new rules supersede E.U. data protection legislation, impose more stringent E.U. data protection requirements, and provide for

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greater penalties for non-compliance. Changing definitions of what constitutes PII may also limit or inhibit Ceridian's ability to operate or to expand its business, including limiting strategic partnerships that may involve the sharing of data. Also, some jurisdictions require that certain types of data be retained on servers within these jurisdictions. Ceridian's failure to comply with applicable laws, directives, and regulations may result in enforcement action against it, including fines and imprisonment, and damage to Ceridian's reputation, any of which may have an adverse effect on its business and operating results. Further, in October 2015, the European Court of Justice issued a ruling invalidating the U.S.-E.U. Safe Harbor Framework, which facilitated transfers of PII to the United States in compliance with applicable E.U. data protection laws. In July 2016, the E.U. and the U.S. political authorities adopted the E.U.-U.S. Privacy Shield, replacing the Safe Harbor Framework and providing a new mechanism for companies to transfer E.U. PII to the United States. U.S. organizations wishing to self-certify under the Privacy Shield must pledge their compliance with its seven core and sixteen supplemental principles, which are based on European Data Protection Law.
If Ceridian's service is perceived to cause, or is otherwise unfavorably associated with, violations of privacy or data security requirements, it may subject it or its customers to public criticism and potential legal liability. Public concerns regarding PII processing, privacy and security may cause some of its customers’ end users to be less likely to visit their websites or otherwise interact with them. If enough end users choose not to visit Ceridian's customers’ websites or otherwise interact with them, Ceridian's customers could stop using its platform. This, in turn, may reduce the value of its services and slow or eliminate the growth of its business. Existing and potential privacy laws and regulations concerning privacy and data security and increasing sensitivity of consumers to unauthorized processing of PII may create negative public reactions to technologies, products, and services such as Ceridian's.
Evolving and changing definitions of what constitutes PII and / or “Personal Data” within the United States, Canada, the European Union, and elsewhere, especially relating to the classification of internet protocol, or IP addresses, machine or device identification numbers, location data and other information, may limit or inhibit Ceridian's ability to operate or to expand its business. Future laws, regulations, standards and other obligations could impair Ceridian's ability to collect or to use information that it utilizes to provide email delivery and marketing services to its customers, thereby impairing its ability to maintain and to grow its customer base and to increase revenue. Future restrictions on the collection, use, sharing, or disclosure of our customers’ data or additional requirements for express or implied consent of customers for the use and disclosure of such information may limit our ability to develop new services and features.
Privacy concerns and laws or other domestic or foreign data protection regulations may reduce the effectiveness of Ceridian's applications, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Ceridian's customers can use its applications to collect, to use, and to store PII regarding their employees, independent contractors, and job applicants. Federal, state, and foreign government bodies and agencies have adopted, are considering adopting, or may adopt laws and regulations regarding the collection, use, storage and disclosure of PII obtained from individuals. The costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, such laws and regulations that are applicable to the businesses of Ceridian's customers, or to its business directly, may limit the use and adoption of Ceridian's applications and reduce overall demand, or lead to significant fines, penalties, or liabilities for any non-compliance with such privacy laws. Furthermore, privacy concerns may cause Ceridian's customers’ workers to resist providing PII necessary to allow its customers to use its applications effectively. Even the perception of privacy concerns, whether or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of Ceridian's applications in certain industries.
All of these domestic and international legislative and regulatory initiatives may adversely affect Ceridian's customers’ ability to process, to handle, to store, to use, and to transmit demographic information and PII from their employees, independent contractors, job applicants, customers, and suppliers, which could reduce demand for Ceridian's applications. The European Union and many countries in Europe have stringent privacy laws and regulations, which may impact Ceridian's ability to profitably operate in certain European countries.
Further, international data protection regulations trending toward increased localized data residency rules make transfers from outside the regulation’s jurisdiction increasingly complex and may impact Ceridian's ability to deliver solutions that meet all customers’ needs. If the processing of PII were to be further curtailed in this manner, Ceridian's solutions could be less effective, which may reduce demand for our applications, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, and results of operations, and ultimately the value of our investment in Ceridian.
In addition to government activity, privacy advocacy groups and the technology and other industries are considering various new, additional, or different self-regulatory standards that may place additional burdens on Ceridian. If the processing of PII were to be curtailed in this manner, Ceridian's solutions would be less effective, which may reduce demand for its applications, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, and results of operations, and ultimately the value of our investment in Ceridian.


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Litigation and regulatory investigations aimed at Ceridian or resulting from actions of its predecessor may result in significant financial losses and harm to its reputation.
Ceridian faces risk of litigation, regulatory investigations, and similar actions in the ordinary course of its business, including the risk of lawsuits and other legal actions relating to breaches of contractual obligations or tortious claims from customers or other third parties, fines, penalties, interest, or other damages as a result of erroneous transactions, breach of data privacy laws, or lawsuits and legal actions related to Ceridian's predecessors. Any such action may include claims for substantial or unspecified compensatory damages, as well as civil, regulatory, or criminal proceedings against Ceridian's directors, officers, or employees; and the probability and amount of liability, if any, may remain unknown for significant periods of time. Ceridian may be also subject to various regulatory inquiries, such as information requests, and book and records examinations, from regulators and other authorities in the geographical markets in which Ceridian operates. A substantial liability arising from a lawsuit judgment or settlement or a significant regulatory action against Ceridian or a disruption in its business arising from adverse adjudications in proceedings against its directors, officers, or employees could have a material adverse effect on Ceridian's business, financial condition, and results or operations and ultimately the value of our investment in Ceridian.
Additionally, Ceridian is subject to claims and investigations as a result of its predecessor, Control Data Corporation (“CDC”), Ceridian Corporation, and other former entities for which Ceridian is successor-in-interest with respect to assumed liabilities. For example, in September 1989, CDC became party to an environmental matters agreement with Seagate Technology plc (“Seagate”) related to groundwater contamination on a parcel of real estate in Omaha, Nebraska sold by CDC to Seagate. In February 1988, CDC entered into an arrangement with Northern Engraving Corporation and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency in relation to groundwater contamination at a site in Spring Grove, Minnesota. In August 2017, Ceridian received notice of a mesothelioma claim related to CDC. Although Ceridian is fully reserved for the groundwater contamination liabilities, Ceridian cannot at this time accurately assess the merits of these claims, and cannot be certain if additional liabilities related to such predecessor companies will surface. Moreover, even if Ceridian ultimately prevails in or settles any litigation, regulatory action, or investigation, Ceridian could suffer significant harm to its reputation, which could materially affect its ability to attract new customers, to retain current customers, and to recruit and to retain employees, which could have a material adverse effect on Ceridian's business, financial condition, and results of operations, and ultimately, the value of our investment in Ceridian.
Risks Relating to the Company's Investment in Dun & Bradstreet
Our investment in D&B may expose us to certain risks, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial position.
D&B’s transformation strategy is based on several strategic initiatives and growth strategies. The achievement of its strategic initiatives and growth strategies depends on a number of factors, including but not limited to its ability to maintain the integrity of its brand and reputation, client demand for its solutions, the effect of macro-economic challenges on its clients and vendors, its reliance on third parties to provide data and certain operational services and its ability to protect its information technology. D&B may not be able to successfully implement its strategic initiatives in accordance with its expectations, or in the timeframe it desires, which may result in us not realizing our expected return on our investment in D&B, or result in a negative return on investment.
We record our investment in D&B using the equity method of accounting, through which we record our proportionate share of their net earnings or loss in our consolidated financial statements. Equity-method investments are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the investment may not be recoverable. If our equity-method investment is not recoverable, we may be required to record an impairment charge, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We share certain directors with D&B or its affiliated entities, which may lead to conflicting interests.
One of our directors, William P. Foley, II, and our CEO and director, Richard N. Massey, also serve on the boards of directors of D&B or its parent and subsidiaries. From time to time, we may enter into transactions with D&B and/or its respective subsidiaries or other affiliates. There can be no assurance that the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to our company, D&B or any of our or its respective subsidiaries or affiliates as would be the case where there is no overlapping director.
D&B's ability to implement and execute its strategic plans to transform the business may not be successful and, accordingly, D&B may not be successful in achieving its goals to transform its business, which could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations.
D&B may not be successful in developing and implementing its strategic plans to transform its businesses, including realigning management, simplifying and scaling technology, expanding and enhancing data and optimizing its client services. If the development or implementation of D&B's plans are not successful, they may not produce the revenue, margins, earnings or synergies that we expect, including offsetting the impact of adverse economic conditions that may exist currently or develop in the future. D&B may also face delays or difficulties in implementing technological, organizational and operational improvements, including its plans to leverage our data insights in new functional areas and utilize existing data architecture to generate high contribution incremental revenue streams, which could adversely affect its ability to successfully compete. In addition, the costs

17


associated with implementing such plans may be more than anticipated and D&B may not have sufficient financial resources to fund all of the desired or necessary investments required in connection with its plans. The existing and future execution of D&B's strategic and operating plans to transform its business will, to some extent, also be dependent on external factors that they cannot control. In addition, these strategic and operational plans need to be continually reassessed to meet the challenges and needs of its business in order for D&B to remain competitive. The failure to implement and execute its strategic and operating plans in a timely manner or at all, realize or maintain the cost savings or other benefits or improvements associated with such plans, have financial resources to fund the costs associated with such plans or incur costs in excess of anticipated amounts, or sufficiently assess and reassess these plans could have a material adverse effect on D&B's business, financial condition and results of operations, and ultimately the value of our investment in D&B.
D&B's brand and reputation are key assets and a competitive advantage, and its business may be affected by how it is perceived in the marketplace.
D&B's brand and reputation are key assets of its business and a competitive advantage. D&B's ability to attract and retain clients is highly dependent upon the external perceptions of its level of data quality, effective provision of solutions, business practices, including the actions of its employees, third-party providers, members of D&B's world-wide network of partners and other brand licensees, some of which may not be consistent with its policies and standards. Negative perception or publicity regarding these matters could damage D&B's reputation with clients and the public, which could make it difficult for it to attract and maintain clients. Adverse developments with respect to its industry may also, by association, negatively impact its reputation, or result in higher regulatory or legislative scrutiny. Negative perceptions or publicity could have a material adverse effect on D&B's business, financial condition and results of operations, and ultimately the value of our investment in D&B.
Data security and integrity are critically important to D&B's business, and cybersecurity incidents, including cyberattacks, breaches of security, unauthorized access to or disclosure of confidential information, business disruption, or the perception that confidential information is not secure, could result in a material loss of business, regulatory enforcement, substantial legal liability and/or significant harm to its reputation.
D&B collects, stores and transmits a large amount of confidential company information on over 355 million total businesses as of December 31, 2019, including financial information and personal information. D&B operates in an environment of significant risk of cybersecurity incidents resulting from unintentional events or deliberate attacks by third parties or insiders, which may involve exploiting highly obscure security vulnerabilities or sophisticated attack methods. These cyberattacks can take many forms, but they typically have one or more of the following objectives, among others:
obtain unauthorized access to confidential information;
manipulate or destroy data; or
disrupt, sabotage or degrade service on D&B's systems.
D&B has experienced and expects to continue to experience numerous attempts to access its computer systems, software, networks, data and other technology assets on a daily basis. The security and protection of its data is a top priority for D&B. D&B devotes significant resources to maintain and regularly upgrade the wide array of physical, technical and contractual safeguards that it employs to provide security around the collection, storage, use, access and delivery of information D&B has in its possession. Despite D&B's physical security, implementation of technical controls and contractual precautions to identify, detect and prevent the unauthorized access to and alteration and disclosure of its data, D&B cannot be certain that third party systems that have access to its systems will not be compromised or disrupted in the future, whether as a result of criminal conduct or other advanced, employee error or malfeasance, or other disruptions during the process of upgrading or replacing computer software or hardware, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures or natural disasters or other catastrophic events. Due to the sensitive nature of the information D&B collects, stores and transmits, it is not unusual for efforts to occur (coordinated or otherwise) by unauthorized persons to attempt to obtain access to its systems or data, or to inhibit D&B's ability to deliver products or services to a consumer or a business customer.
D&B must continually monitor and develop its information technology networks and infrastructure to prevent, detect, address and mitigate the risk of unauthorized access, misuse, computer viruses and other events that could have a security impact. The preventive actions D&B takes to address cybersecurity risk, including protection of its systems and networks, may be insufficient to repel or mitigate the effects of cyberattacks as it may not always be possible to anticipate, detect or recognize threats to its systems, or to implement effective preventive measures against all cybersecurity risks. This is because, among other things:
the techniques used in cyberattacks change frequently and may not be recognized until after the attacks have succeeded;
cyberattacks can originate from a wide variety of sources, including sophisticated threat actors involved in organized crime, sponsored by nation-states, or linked to terrorist or hacktivist organizations; and
third parties may seek to gain access to our systems either directly or using equipment or security passwords belonging to employees, clients, third-party service providers or other users.

18


Although D&B has not incurred material losses or liabilities to date as a result of any breaches, unauthorized disclosure, loss or corruption of its data or inability of its clients to access its systems, such events could disrupt D&B's operations, subject it to substantial regulatory and legal proceedings and potential liability and fines, result in a material loss of business and/or significantly harm its reputation.
D&B may not be able to immediately address the consequences of a cybersecurity incident because a successful breach of its computer systems, software, networks or other technology assets could occur and persist for an extended period of time before being detected due to, among other things:
the breadth and complexity of its operations and the high volume of transactions that is processes;
the large number of clients, counterparties and third-party service providers with which D&B does business with;
the proliferation and increasing sophistication of cyberattacks; and
the possibility that a third party, after establishing a foothold on an internal network without being detected, might obtain access to other networks and systems.
The extent of a particular cybersecurity incident and the steps that D&B may need to take to investigate it may not be immediately clear, and it may take a significant amount of time before such an investigation can be completed and full and reliable information about the incident is known. While such an investigation is ongoing, D&B may not necessarily know the extent of the harm or how best to remediate it, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and remediated, any or all of which could further increase the costs and consequences of a cybersecurity incident.
Due to concerns about data security and integrity, a growing number of legislative and regulatory bodies have adopted breach notification and other requirements in the event that information subject to such laws is accessed by unauthorized persons and additional regulations regarding the use, access, accuracy and security of such data are possible. In the United States, we are subject to laws that provide for at least 50 disparate notification regimes. Complying with such numerous and complex regulations in the event of unauthorized access would be expensive and difficult, and failure to comply with these regulations could subject D&B to regulatory scrutiny and additional liability.
If D&B is unable to protect its computer systems, software, networks, data and other technology assets it could have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition and results of operations, and ultimately the value of our investment in D&B.
D&B's substantial indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition and its ability to operate its business or react to changes in the economy or its industry, prevent them from fulfilling its obligations and could divert its cash flow from operations for debt payments.
D&B has a substantial amount of indebtedness, which requires significant interest and principal payments. As of December 31, 2019, D&B has $3,818.9 million in total long-term debt outstanding, consisting of borrowings under its senior secured credit facilities (the ‘‘New Senior Secured Credit Facilities’’), senior secured and unsecured notes (the ‘‘New Notes’’) and its repatriation bridge facility (the ‘‘New Repatriation Facility’’). In addition, subject to the limitations contained in the credit agreements governing D&B's New Senior Secured Credit Facilities and the indentures governing its New Notes, D&B may be able to incur substantial additional debt from time to time to finance working capital, capital expenditures, investments or acquisitions or for other purposes. If D&B does so, the risks related to its high level of debt could increase. This substantial amount of indebtedness could have important consequences to D&B, including the following:
it may be difficult for D&B to satisfy its obligations, including debt service requirements under its outstanding indebtedness;
D&B's ability to obtain additional financing for working capital, capital expenditures, debt service requirements, acquisitions or other general corporate purposes may be impaired;
requiring a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to be dedicated to the payment of principal and interest on its indebtedness, thereby reducing D&B's ability to use its cash flow to fund its operations, capital expenditures, future business opportunities and other purposes;
D&B will be more vulnerable to economic downturns and adverse industry conditions and its flexibility to plan for, or react to, changes in its business or industry will be more limited;
D&B's ability to capitalize on business opportunities and to react to competitive pressures, as compared to its competitors, may be compromised due to its high level of indebtedness and the restrictive covenants in its credit agreements and indentures;
D&B's ability to borrow additional funds or to refinance indebtedness may be limited; and

19


it may cause potential or existing clients or vendors to not contract with D&B due to concerns over its ability to meet its financial obligations.
Risks Relating to the Company's Corporate and Other Businesses 
Competition and technology may erode the Corporate and Other business franchises and result in lower earnings, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Each of the Corporate and Other businesses face intense competitive pressures within markets in which they operate. While we will manage our businesses with the objective of achieving long-term sustainable growth by developing and strengthening competitive advantages, many factors, including market and technology changes, may erode or prevent the strengthening of competitive advantages. Accordingly, future operating results will depend to some degree on whether our Corporate and Other businesses are successful in protecting or enhancing their competitive advantages. If our Corporate and Other businesses are unsuccessful in these efforts, our periodic operating results in the future may decline from current levels.
The Corporate and Other businesses, from time to time in the ordinary course of business, are involved in legal proceedings and may experience unfavorable outcomes, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Corporate and Other businesses, from time to time in the ordinary course of business, are involved in pending and threatened litigation matters, some of which include claims for punitive or exemplary damages. These companies are also subject to compliance with extensive government laws and regulations related to employment practices and policies. The Corporate and Other businesses may not be able to successfully resolve these types of conflicts to their satisfaction, and these matters may involve claims for substantial amounts of money or for other relief that might necessitate changes to their business or operations. The defense of these actions may be both time consuming and expensive and their outcomes cannot be predicted with certainty. Determining reserves for pending litigation is a complex, fact-intensive process that requires significant legal judgment. It is possible that unfavorable outcomes in one or more such proceedings could result in substantial payments that could have a material adverse effect on the Corporate and Other businesses' cash flows in a particular period or on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure to comply with, or changes in, laws or regulations applicable to the Corporate and Other businesses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The Corporate and Other businesses will be subject to certain laws, such as certain environmental laws, takeover laws, anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws, escheat or abandoned property laws, and antitrust laws, that may impose requirements on us and them as an affiliated group. As a result, we could become jointly and severally liable for all or part of fines imposed on our Corporate and Other businesses or be fined directly for violations committed by these businesses, and such fines imposed directly on us could be greater than those imposed on such businesses. Compliance with these laws or contracts could also require us to commit significant resources and capital towards information gathering and monitoring thereby increasing our operating costs.
Similarly, the Corporate and Other businesses may be subject to contractual obligations which may impose obligations or restrictions on their affiliates. The interpretation of such contractual provisions will depend on local laws. Given that we do not control all of the Corporate and Other businesses and that they generally operate independently of each other, there is a risk that we could contravene one or more of such laws, regulations and contractual arrangements due to limited access and opportunities to monitor compliance. In addition, compliance with these laws or contracts could require us to commit significant resources and capital towards information gathering and monitoring thereby increasing our operating costs.
We need qualified personnel to manage and operate our Corporate and Other businesses, and any inability to adequately satisfy these needs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
In our decentralized business model, we need qualified and competent management to direct day-to-day business activities of our Corporate and Other businesses. Our Corporate and Other businesses also need qualified and competent personnel in executing their business plans and serving their customers, suppliers and other stakeholders. Changes in demographics, training requirements and the unavailability of qualified personnel could negatively impact our Corporate and Other businesses' ability to meet demands of customers to supply goods and services. Recruiting and retaining qualified personnel is important to all of our Corporate and Other businesses' operations. Although our Corporate and Other businesses have adequate personnel for the current business environment, unpredictable increases in demand for goods and services may exacerbate the risk of not having sufficient numbers of trained personnel, which could have a negative impact on our operating results, financial condition and liquidity.

20


Risks Relating to the Company's Investments 
Our management may seek growth through acquisitions in lines of business that will not necessarily be limited to our current areas of focus or geographic areas. This expansion of our business subjects us to associated risks, such as the diversion of management's attention and lack of experience in operating such businesses, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may make acquisitions in lines of business that are not directly tied to or synergistic with our current portfolio companies. Accordingly, we may in the future acquire businesses in industries or geographic areas with which management is less familiar than we are with our current businesses.
The acquisition and integration of any business we may acquire involves a number of risks and may result in unforeseen operating difficulties and expenditures in assimilating or integrating the businesses, technologies, products, personnel or operations of the acquired business. Furthermore, acquisitions may:
involve our entry into geographic or business markets in which we have little or no prior experience;
involve difficulties in retaining the customers of the acquired business; 
involve difficulties and expense associated with regulatory requirements, competition controls or investigations;
result in a delay or reduction of sales for both us and the business we acquire; and 
disrupt our ongoing business, divert our resources and require significant management attention that would otherwise be available for ongoing development of our current business.
To complete future acquisitions, we may determine that it is necessary to use a substantial amount of our cash or engage in equity or debt financing. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. Any debt financing obtained by us in the future could involve restrictive covenants relating to our capital-raising activities and other financial and operational matters that make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital in the future and to pursue other business opportunities, including potential acquisitions. In addition, we may not be able to obtain additional financing on terms favorable to us, if at all, which could limit our ability to engage in acquisitions. Moreover, we can make no assurances that the anticipated benefits of any acquisition, such as operating improvements or anticipated cost savings, would be realized or that we would not be exposed to unexpected liabilities in connection with any acquisition.
Further, an acquisition may negatively affect our operating results because it may require us to incur charges and substantial debt or other liabilities, may cause adverse tax consequences, substantial depreciation and amortization of deferred compensation charges, may require the amortization, write-down or impairment of amounts related to deferred compensation, goodwill and other intangible assets, may include substantial contingent consideration payments or other compensation that reduce our earnings during the quarter in which incurred, or may not generate sufficient financial return to offset acquisition costs.
We may often pursue investment opportunities that involve business, regulatory, legal or other complexities, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As an element of our investment strategy, we may pursue unusually complex investment opportunities. This could often take the form of substantial business, regulatory or legal complexity. Our tolerance for complexity may present risks, as such transactions can be more difficult, expensive and time-consuming to finance and execute; it may be more difficult to manage or realize value from the assets acquired in such transactions; and such transactions may sometimes entail a higher level of regulatory scrutiny or a greater risk of contingent liabilities. Any of these risks could harm our performance.
The loss of key personnel could impair our operating abilities and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our success will substantially depend on our ability to attract and retain key members of our senior management team and officers. If we lose one or more of these key employees, our operating results and in turn the value of our common stock could be materially adversely affected. Although we will have employment agreements with many of our officers, there can be no assurance that the entire term of the employment agreement will be served or that the employment agreement will be renewed upon expiration.
The due diligence process that we undertake in connection with new acquisitions may not reveal all facts that may be relevant in connection with an investment.
Before making acquisitions, we will conduct due diligence that we deem reasonable and appropriate based on the facts and circumstances applicable to each investment. When conducting due diligence, we may be required to evaluate important and complex business, financial, tax, accounting, environmental and legal issues. Outside consultants, legal advisers, accountants and investment banks may be involved in the due diligence process in varying degrees depending on the type of investment. Nevertheless, when conducting due diligence and making an assessment regarding an acquisition, we will rely on the resources

21


available to us, including information provided by the target of the investment and, in some circumstances, third party investigations. The due diligence investigation that we will carry out with respect to any opportunity may not reveal or highlight all relevant facts (including fraud) that may be necessary or helpful in evaluating such opportunity. Moreover, such an investigation will not necessarily result in the investment being successful.
Risks Relating to the Split-Off
We may incur material costs as a result of our separation from FNF, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a result of our separation from FNF, we have incurred and will continue to incur costs and expenses not previously incurred. These increased costs and expenses may arise from various factors, including financial reporting or costs associated with complying with the federal securities laws (including compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, tax administration and human resources related functions.) Although FNF will continue to provide many of these services for us at no-cost (other than reimbursement of FNF's out-of-pocket costs and expenses) under the corporate services agreement for up to three years following the Split-Off. The initial three-year term is set to expire in November 2020 and we are still evaluating our options for ongoing services currently provided by FNF. If the corporate services agreement is not mutually terminated by Cannae Holdings and FNF prior to the expiration of the initial three-year term, the corporate services agreement will automatically renew for successive one-year terms on mutually agreeable arm's length terms unless FNF and Cannae Holdings mutually agree to terminate the agreement. We cannot assure you that we will not incur third-party vendor costs or out-of-pocket expenses under the corporate services agreement that are material to our business. Moreover, we will have to develop internal departments/functions to perform the services at the end of the term of the corporate services agreement.
We share certain directors and officers with FNF, which may lead to conflicting interests.
Two of our executive officers, Richard L. Cox and Michael L. Gravelle, are also contracted to provide services or employed by FNF or FNF's subsidiaries and one of our directors, William P. Foley, II and one of our executive officers, Richard N. Massey, also serve on the boards of directors of FNF or its subsidiaries. Our executive officers and members of our board of directors have fiduciary duties to our stockholders. Likewise, any such persons who serve in similar capacities at FNF or any other public company have fiduciary duties to that company's stockholders. We also are party to a variety of related party agreements and relationships with FNF and certain of FNF's subsidiaries and FNF and subsidiaries of FNF have an ownership interest in Cannae Holdings. From time to time, we may enter into transactions with FNF and/or its respective subsidiaries or other affiliates. There can be no assurance that the terms of any such transactions will be as favorable to our company, FNF or any of our or its respective subsidiaries or affiliates as would be the case where there is no overlapping officer or director.
Our agreements with FNF were negotiated while we were a subsidiary of FNF.
We have a number of inter-company agreements covering matters such as tax sharing and our responsibility for certain liabilities previously undertaken by FNF for certain of our businesses. In addition, we have entered into (i) a corporate services agreement with FNF, pursuant to which FNF provides to us certain "back office" services at no-cost (other than reimbursement of FNF's out-of-pocket costs and expenses), (ii) a voting agreement with FNF, pursuant to which FNF agrees to appear or cause all shares of Cannae Holdings common stock that FNF or its subsidiaries, as applicable, own after the Split-Off to be counted as present at any meeting of the stockholders of Cannae Holdings, for the purpose of establishing a quorum, and agrees to vote all of such Cannae Holdings shares (or cause them to be voted) in the same manner as, and in the same proportion to, all shares voted by holders of Cannae Holdings common stock (other than FNF and its subsidiaries), (iii) a registration rights agreement, pursuant to which FNF or its subsidiaries, as applicable, received registration rights with respect to the shares in Cannae held by FNF and (iv) a revolver note with FNF, pursuant to which Cannae Holdings may borrow revolving loans, the proceeds of which may be used for investment purposes and working capital needs, from FNF from time to time in an aggregate amount not to exceed $100.0 million. The terms of all of these agreements were established while we were a wholly-owned subsidiary of FNF, and hence may not be the result of arm's length negotiations. We believe that the terms of these inter-company agreements are commercially reasonable and fair to all parties under the circumstances; however, conflicts could arise in the interpretation or any extension or renegotiation of the foregoing agreements after the Split-Off.
Risks Relating to the Company's Common Stock and the Securities Market 
Our charter, bylaws and provisions of Delaware law may discourage or prevent strategic transactions, including a takeover of our company, even if such a transaction would be beneficial to our stockholders.
Provisions contained in our charter and bylaws and provisions of the Delaware General Corporate Law ("DGCL"), could delay or prevent a third party from entering into a strategic transaction with us, as applicable, even if such a transaction would benefit our stockholders. For example, our charter and bylaws:
authorize the issuance of "blank check" preferred stock that could be issued by us upon approval of our board of directors to increase the number of outstanding shares of capital stock, making a takeover more difficult and expensive; 

22


provide that directors may be removed from office only for cause and that any vacancy on our board of directors may only be filled by a majority of our directors then in office, which may make it difficult for other stockholders to reconstitute our board of directors;
provide that special meetings of the stockholders may be called only upon the request of a majority of our board of directors or by our executive chairman, chief executive officer or president, as applicable; 
require advance notice to be given by stockholders for any stockholder proposals or director nominees; 
provide that directors are elected by a plurality of the votes cast by stockholders, which results in each director nominee elected by a plurality winning his or her seat upon receiving one "for" vote; and 
provide that the board of directors is divided into three classes, as nearly equal in number as possible, with one class being elected at each annual meeting of stockholders, which could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or discourage a third party from seeking to acquire, control of Cannae.
These restrictions and provisions could keep us from pursuing relationships with strategic partners and from raising additional capital, which could impede our ability to expand our business and strengthen our competitive position. These restrictions could also limit stockholder value by impeding a sale of our company.
Item 1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.  
Properties
Our corporate headquarters are located in Las Vegas, Nevada in owned facilities.
Restaurant Group. The Restaurant Group's headquarters are located in Nashville, Tennessee with other office locations in Woburn, Massachusetts. The majority of the restaurants are leased from third parties, and are located in 40 states throughout the United States and Guam. Substantially all of our Restaurant Group's revenues are generated in those states.
Dun & Bradstreet. The principal executive offices of Dun & Bradstreet are located in a leased facility in Short Hills, New Jersey. As of December 31, 2019, D&B leases space in approximately 34 other locations including in Center Valley, Pennsylvania; Austin, Texas; Marlow, England; and Dublin, Ireland.
Ceridian. The principal executive offices of Ceridian are located in Minneapolis, Minnesota and Toronto, Ontario. As of December 31, 2019, Ceridian's principal computer and office facilities are located in the metropolitan areas of Minneapolis, Minnesota; Atlanta, Georgia; Los Angeles, California; Chicago, Illinois; St. Petersburg, Florida; St. Louis, Missouri; Honolulu, Hawaii; Louisville, Kentucky; in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Montreal, Quebec, Ottawa, Ontario, Calgary, Alberta, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada; and in Ebene, Mauritius.
Corporate and Other. The Golf & Real Estate segment of Cannae RE owns a 1,800 acre ranch-style luxury resort and residential community in Bend/Powell Butte, Oregon and an 18-hole championship golf facility located in Rock Creek, Idaho.
Item 3.
Legal Proceedings  
For a description of our legal proceedings see discussion under Legal and Regulatory Contingencies in Note M. Commitments and Contingencies to our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report, which is incorporated by reference into this Part I, Item 3.
Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
None.


23


PART II
Item 5.
Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The Company's common stock trades on The New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol "CNNE".
Performance Graph
Set forth below is a graph comparing cumulative total shareholder return on our common stock against the cumulative total return on the S&P 500 Index and against the cumulative total return of a peer group index consisting of certain companies against which we compete for the period ending December 31, 2019. The peer group comparison has been weighted based on their stock market capitalization. The graph assumes an initial investment of $100.00 on November 20, 2017, the date on which shares of our common stock began trading.
https://cdn.kscope.io/cd090de5445b0ef6f817276d92bcde54-cnne2019a01.jpg
 
 
11/20/2017
12/31/2017
12/31/2018
12/31/2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cannae Holdings, Inc.
 
100.00

92.60

93.09

202.23

S&P 500
 
100.00

104.21

99.64

131.02

Peer Group (1)
 
100.00

105.94

88.08

126.33

(1) This peer group consists of the following companies: Apollo Global Management, LLC, Ares Capital Corporation, BlackRock, Inc., The Blackstone Group L.P., The Carlyle Group L.P., Compass Diversified Holdings, Jefferies Financial Group Inc., KKR & Co. Inc., and Qurate Retail Inc.

24


On January 31, 2020, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The New York Stock Exchange was $40.66 per share. We had approximately 5,556 shareholders of record.
Information concerning securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans will be included in Item 12 of Part III of this Annual Report.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer
On September 19, 2019, our Board of Directors approved a new three-year stock repurchase program effective September 19, 2019 (the "2019 Repurchase Program") under which we may purchase up to 5 million shares of our common stock through September 30, 2022. We may make repurchases from time to time in the open market, in block purchases or in privately negotiated transactions, depending on market conditions and other factors. We repurchased 178,307 shares of our common stock during the year ended December 31, 2019 for approximately $4.9 million in the aggregate, or an average of $27.35 per share. From the original commencement of the 2019 Repurchase Program through market close on November 8, 2019, we repurchased a total of 178,307 common shares for approximately $4.9 million in the aggregate, or an average of $27.35 per share.
The following table summarizes repurchases of equity securities by Cannae during the year ending December 31, 2019:
Period
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid per Share
 
Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (1)
 
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (2)
9/1/2019 - 9/30/2019
 
145,000

 
$
27.31

 
145,000

 
4,855,000

10/1/2019 - 10/31/2019
 
33,307

 
27.53

 
33,307

 
4,821,693

Total
 
178,307

 
$
27.35

 
178,307

 
 
(1)
On September 19, 2019, our Board of Directors approved the 2019 Repurchase Program, under which we may purchase up to 5 million shares of our common stock through September 30, 2022.
(2)
As of the last day of the applicable month.
Item 6. 
Selected Financial Data
The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements and related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Certain reclassifications have been made to the prior year amounts to conform with the 2019 presentation.
On December 31, 2019, we completed the T-System Contribution. As a result, we reclassified the results of operations of T-System as discontinued operations for years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017 and for all quarterly periods within those years.
On June 6, 2017, we closed on the sale of Digital Insurance, Inc. ("OneDigital") for $560.0 million in an all-cash transaction. The operations of One Digital are included in discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015. We recognized a pre-tax gain of $276.0 million on the sale and $126.3 million in income tax expense, which are included in Net earnings from discontinued operations on the Consolidated and Combined Statement of Operations for year ended December 31, 2017.
On September 28, 2015, we completed the distribution of J. Alexander's to FNFV shareholders. The results of J. Alexander's operations are included through the distribution date.
Summary Balance Sheet Data:
 
As of December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in millions)
Balance Sheet Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Cash and cash equivalents
$
533.7

 
$
315.7

 
$
243.5

 
$
141.7

 
273.8

Total assets
2,092.2

 
1,459.5

 
1,487.2

 
1,473.3

 
1,469.5

Notes payable, long term
120.1

 
42.2

 
12.7

 
93.3

 
92.8

Equity
1,529.8

 
1,199.7

 
1,153.1

 
1,009.8

 
1,056.5


25


Summary Statement of Operations Data:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
2016
 
2015
 
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Operating Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Operating revenue
$
1,070.0

 
$
1,147.5

 
$
1,156.6

 
$
1,178.4

 
$
1,414.7

Expenses:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of restaurant revenues
912.8

 
991.3

 
991.0

 
984.1

 
1,195.2

Personnel costs
90.3

 
137.2

 
95.6

 
68.3

 
85.4

Depreciation and amortization
40.7

 
46.3

 
46.2

 
44.7

 
49.8

Other operating expenses, including asset impairments
133.4

 
91.8

 
101.3

 
83.5

 
96.4

Goodwill impairment
10.4

 
26.7

 

 

 

Total operating expenses
1,187.6

 
1,293.3

 
1,234.1

 
1,180.6

 
1,426.8

Operating loss
(117.6
)
 
(145.8
)
 
(77.5
)
 
(2.2
)
 
(12.1
)
Total other income, net
355.5

 
168.4

 
3.2

 
7.4

 
8.3

Earnings (loss) before income taxes, equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
237.9

 
22.6

 
(74.3
)
 
5.2

 
(3.8
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
24.2

 
15.0

 
(14.2
)
 
(10.4
)
 
(19.7
)
Earnings (loss) before equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
213.7

 
7.6

 
(60.1
)
 
15.6

 
15.9

Equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
(115.1
)
 
(16.1
)
 
3.4

 
(29.5
)
 
(26.0
)
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations, net of tax
98.6

 
(8.5
)
 
(56.7
)
 
(13.9
)
 
(10.1
)
(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
(51.8
)
 
(2.1
)
 
149.2

 
2.0

 
2.8

Net earnings (loss)
46.8

 
(10.6
)
 
92.5

 
(11.9
)
 
(7.3
)
Less: Net (loss) earnings attributable to noncontrolling interests
(30.5
)
 
(38.2
)
 
(16.3
)
 
0.5

 
15.6

Net earnings (loss) attributable to Cannae Holdings
$
77.3

 
$
27.6

 
$
108.8

 
$
(12.4
)
 
$
(22.9
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Per Share Data:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Basic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Net earnings (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders (1)
$
1.77

 
$
0.42

 
$
(0.57
)
 
$
(0.21
)
 
$
(0.36
)
Net (loss) earnings from discontinued operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders (1)
(0.70
)
 
(0.03
)
 
2.11

 
0.03

 
0.04

Net earnings (loss) per share attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders (1)
$
1.07

 
$
0.39

 
$
1.54

 
$
(0.18
)
 
$
(0.32
)
Weighted average shares outstanding Cannae Holdings, basic basis (1)
72.2

 
71.2

 
70.6

 
70.6

 
70.6

Diluted
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings (loss) from continuing operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders (1)
$
1.76

 
$
0.42

 
$
(0.57
)
 
$
(0.21
)
 
$
(0.36
)
Net (loss) earnings from discontinued operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders (1)
(0.69
)
 
(0.03
)
 
2.11

 
0.03

 
0.04

Net earnings (loss) per share attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders (1)
$
1.07

 
$
0.39

 
$
1.54

 
$
(0.18
)
 
$
(0.32
)
Weighted average shares outstanding Cannae Holdings, diluted basis (1)
72.4

 
71.3

 
70.6

 
70.6

 
70.6

Cash dividends paid per share Cannae Holdings common stock
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

Book value per share Cannae Holdings (1)(2)
$
19.24

 
$
16.61

 
$
16.33

 
$
14.30

 
$
14.96

______________________________________
(1)
On November 17, 2017, the date of the consummation of the Split-Off, 70.6 million shares of our common stock were distributed to FNFV Group shareholders. For comparative purposes, the weighted average number of common shares outstanding and basic and diluted earnings per share for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 were calculated using the number of shares distributed as if those shares were issued and outstanding beginning January 1, 2015.
(2)
Book value per share is calculated as total equity at December 31 of each year presented divided by actual shares outstanding at December 31 of each year presented.

26


Summary Quarterly Financial Data (Unaudited):
 
Quarter Ended
 
March 31,
 
June 30,
 
September 30,
 
December 31,
 
(in millions, except per share amounts)
2019:
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Operating revenue
$
262.3

 
$
272.2

 
$
257.0

 
$
278.5

(Loss) earnings before income taxes, equity in (loss) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
(2.2
)
 
49.6

 
67.5

 
123.0

(Loss) earnings from continuing operations, net of tax
(17.6
)
 
21.4

 
44.1

 
50.7

Loss from discontinued operations, net of tax
(2.3
)
 
(2.5
)
 
(2.5
)
 
(44.5
)
Net (loss) earnings
(19.9
)
 
18.9

 
41.6

 
6.2

Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
(3.1
)
 
(4.5
)
 
(4.6
)
 
(18.3
)
Net (loss) earnings attributable to Cannae Holdings
$
(16.8
)
 
$
23.4

 
$
46.2

 
$
24.5

Per Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net (loss) earnings per share from continuing operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.20
)
 
$
0.36

 
$
0.69

 
$
0.92

Net loss per share from discontinued operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.04
)
 
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.04
)
 
$
(0.59
)
Basic (loss) earnings per share attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.24
)
 
$
0.33

 
$
0.65

 
$
0.33

Diluted
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net (loss) earnings from continuing operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.20
)
 
$
0.36

 
$
0.69

 
$
0.91

Net loss from discontinued operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.04
)
 
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.04
)
 
$
(0.58
)
Diluted (loss) earnings per share attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.24
)
 
$
0.33

 
$
0.65

 
$
0.33

Cash dividends paid per share Cannae Holdings common stock
$

 
$

 
$

 
$

2018:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating revenue
$
277.0

 
$
287.5

 
$
279.4

 
$
303.6

(Loss) earnings before income taxes, equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates, and noncontrolling interest
(8.9
)
 
0.9

 
(11.9
)
 
42.5

(Loss) earnings from continuing operations, net of tax
(6.3
)
 
(21.8
)
 
(7.7
)
 
27.3

Earnings (loss) from discontinued operations, net of tax
1.0

 
(0.6
)
 
(0.4
)
 
(2.1
)
Net (loss) earnings
(5.3
)
 
(22.4
)
 
(8.1
)
 
25.2

Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
(4.2
)
 
(2.6
)
 
(9.6
)
 
(21.8
)
Net (loss) earnings attributable to Cannae Holdings
$
(1.1
)
 
$
(19.8
)
 
$
1.5

 
$
47.0

Per Share Data:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net (loss) earnings from continuing operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.27
)
 
$
0.03

 
$
0.69

Net earnings (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
0.01

 
$
(0.01
)
 
$
(0.01
)
 
$
(0.02
)
Basic (loss) earnings per share attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.02
)
 
$
(0.28
)
 
$
0.02

 
$
0.67

Diluted
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net (loss) earnings from continuing operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.27
)
 
$
0.03

 
$
0.69

Net earnings (loss) from discontinued operations attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
0.01

 
$
(0.01
)
 
$
(0.01
)
 
$
(0.02
)
Diluted (loss) earnings per share attributable to Cannae Holdings common shareholders
$
(0.02
)
 
$
(0.28
)
 
$
0.02

 
$
0.67

Cash dividends paid per share Cannae Holdings common stock
$

 
$

 
$

 
$



27


Item 7.  
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements and the Notes thereto and Selected Financial Data included elsewhere in this Form 10-K.
Overview
For a description of our business, including descriptions of segments, see the discussion under Business in Item 1 of Part I of this Annual Report, which is incorporated by reference into this Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report.
Recent Developments
Dun & Bradstreet
In February 2019, we completed our previously announced investment in Dun & Bradstreet for a net investment of $505.6 million in D&B's ultimate parent. Dun & Bradstreet is a leading global provider of business decisioning data and analytics and provides various solutions to help companies improve their operational performance.
In June 2019, we made an additional pro-rata investment of $23.5 million in D&B's ultimate parent. D&B used the proceeds to partially fund its acquisition on July 1, 2019 of Lattice Engines, Inc., an artificial intelligence powered customer data platform used by business-to-business marketing and sales professionals.
Ceridian
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we completed the sale of an aggregate of 9.0 million shares of common stock of Ceridian as part of three separate underwritten secondary public offerings by certain stockholders of Ceridian (the "Ceridian Share Sales"). In connection with the Ceridian Share Sales, we received aggregate proceeds of $477.9 million and recorded a gain of $342.1 million, which is included in Realized gains (losses), net on the Consolidated and Combined Statement of Operations. The recorded gains are net of $21.2 million of losses (exclusive of $4.6 million of income tax benefit) related to reclassification adjustments from Other comprehensive earnings. As of December 31, 2019, we owned 16.4% of the outstanding common stock of Ceridian.
On February 21, 2020, we completed the sale of an additional 3.9 million shares of common stock of Ceridian to a broker pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act of 1933 and received proceeds of $283.7 million. As a result of the sale, we now own 19.8 million shares of Ceridian which represents 13.7% of its outstanding common stock.
Restaurant Group
Blue Ribbon and O'Charley's have entered into plans to sell certain company-owned stores. In conjunction with the plans to sell, $1.6 million and $9.3 million, respectively, of assets are recorded as held for sale and included in Prepaid expenses and other current assets, net as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
On March 21, 2019, Blue Ribbon sold its corporate office located in Nashville, Tennessee for net cash proceeds of $13.2 million and entered into a lease agreement with the buyer to lease the office for an initial term of 15 years. The transaction was evaluated and determined not to qualify for sale-leaseback accounting. Accordingly, the transaction is accounted for as a failed sale and leaseback and a financing obligation. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we reclassified $2.4 million from assets held for sale formerly included in Prepaid expenses and other current assets to reflect the real estate assets in Property and equipment, net on our Consolidated and Combined Balance Sheet as if we were the legal owner. We continue to recognize depreciation expense over the building's estimated useful life. On the date of the sale, we recorded a liability for the financing obligation in the amount of the net cash proceeds of $13.2 million, which is included in Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities, long term on our Consolidated and Combined Balance Sheet.
On December 13, 2019, O'Charley's and a third-party lessor partner closed on the exchange of certain company-owned stores (the "Transferred Properties") held by O'Charley's in exchange for properties owned by the lessor, and previously leased by O'Charley's to operate certain of its stores (the "O'Charley's Exchange"). In conjunction with the O'Charley's Exchange, O'Charley's obtained land with a fair value of $10.5 million and will lease back the Transferred Properties. We continue to account for $6.0 million of property associated with the Transferred Properties as if we were the legal owner which is included in Property and equipment, net on our Consolidated and Combined Balance Sheet. The O'Charley's Exchange was evaluated and determined not to qualify for sale-leaseback accounting. Accordingly, the transaction is accounted for as a failed sale and leaseback and a financing obligation. On the date of the sale, O'Charley's recorded a liability for the financing obligation in the amount of the lease liability formerly recorded by O'Charley's for the Transferred Properties of $14.6 million, which is included in Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities, long term on our Consolidated and Combined Balance Sheet.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, Blue Ribbon and O'Charley's also sold Blue Ribbon's corporate office located in Denver, Colorado and certain company-owned O'Charley's stores for total gross proceeds of $18.4 million.
On January 27, 2020, Blue Ribbon and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, filed voluntary petitions for relief under chapter 11 of

28


the United States Bankruptcy Code in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (the "Blue Ribbon Reorganization"). The Blue Ribbon Reorganization does not involve or affect the operations of O’Charley’s or 99 Restaurants, which are not part of Blue Ribbon.
Shortly before the Blue Ribbon Reorganization, Blue Ribbon closed 33 underperforming Village Inn and Bakers Square branded stores with 2019 revenue of $47.9 million and historical store-level operating losses.
T-System
On December 31, 2019, we completed our previously announced contribution of T-System Holdings, Inc. ("T-System") into a health care joint venture with an investment vehicle advised by an affiliate of Carlyle Investment Management, L.L.C. (“Carlyle”) and certain other investors with deep health care services experience (the "T-System Contribution"). The joint venture, Coding Solutions, plans to focus on acquiring, integrating and operating synergistic health care services companies in the provider and payer space. On the closing date, subsidiaries of Coding Solutions acquired two other healthcare services companies that provide (1) offshore medical coding solutions for the risk adjustment and provider markets and (2) domestic coding and clinical documentation services to providers.
As a result of the T-System Contribution, we received cash proceeds of $60.8 million for the repayment in full of debt loaned by our consolidated subsidiary to T-System and $14.5 million as consideration for a portion of our shares of T-System. We contributed the remainder of our equity interest in T-System for a 22.7% equity interest in Coding Solutions valued at $60.2 million.
We account for our investment in Coding Solutions under the equity method of accounting and the initial investment value of $60.2 million is included in Investments in unconsolidated affiliates on our Consolidated and Combined Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2019.
QOMPLX
On July 23, 2019, Cannae Holdings, in partnership with Motive Partners, closed on an investment in preferred equity of QOMPLX, Inc. ("QOMPLX"), formerly Fractal Industries, Inc., an intelligent decision and analytics platform used by businesses for modeling and planning. We funded $15.0 million at close and funded an additional $15.0 million in the fourth quarter of 2019. $7.5 million of our investment made in the fourth quarter was for a note receivable convertible into preferred equity. Cannae's total preferred investment represents 18.8% of the outstanding voting equity of QOMPLX. Our Chairman William P. Foley II has joined QOMPLX’s Board of Directors.
Externalization
On August 27, 2019, we announced the execution of definitive documents for the Externalization, which became effective on September 1, 2019, pursuant to which the Company transitioned to an externally managed structure. In connection with the Externalization, the Company, Cannae LLC and the Manager, entered into the Management Services Agreement, which became effective September 1, 2019. The members of the Manager include certain directors and executive officers of the Company. Pursuant to the Management Services Agreement, certain services related to the management of the Company will be conducted by the Manager through the authority delegated to it in the Management Services Agreement and in accordance with the operational objectives and business plans approved by the Company’s Board of Directors. Subject at all times to the supervision and direction of the Board of Directors, the Manager will be responsible for, among other things, (a) managing the day-to-day business and operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, (b) evaluating the financial and operational performance of the Company's subsidiaries and other assets, (c) providing a management team to serve as some of the executive officers of the Company and its subsidiaries and (d) performing (or causing to be performed) any other services for and on behalf of the Company and its subsidiaries customarily performed by executive officers and employees of a public company.
Pursuant to the terms of the Management Services Agreement, Cannae LLC is obligated to pay the Manager a quarterly management fee equal to 0.375% (1.5% annualized) of the Company’s cost of invested capital (as defined in the Management Services Agreement) as of the last day of each fiscal quarter, payable in arrears in cash, as may be adjusted pursuant to the terms of the Management Services Agreement. Cannae LLC will be responsible for paying costs and expenses relating to the Company’s business and operations. Cannae LLC is required to reimburse the Manager for documented expenses of the Manager incurred on the Company’s behalf, including any costs and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of the services under the Management Services Agreement.
The Company conducts its business through Cannae LLC. In connection with the consummation of the Externalization, an Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of Cannae LLC (the “Operating Agreement”) was entered into on August 27, 2019, by and among Cannae LLC and the Company, the Manager and Cannae Holdco, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a direct, wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, which became effective on September 1, 2019.
For so long as the Management Services Agreement is in effect, the Company, as managing member of Cannae LLC, authorizes the Manager to (a) designate officers of Cannae LLC and (b) perform, or cause to be performed, the services as are set forth in the Management Services Agreement.

29


In connection with such services, so long as Cannae LLC’s profits with respect to a liquidity event (sale or other disposition) involving an investment (as defined in the Operating Agreement) exceed an annualized hurdle rate of 8%, Cannae LLC is obligated to pay carried interest with respect to such investment to the Manager. Generally, where such hurdle is satisfied, carried interest will be paid to the Manager in an amount equal to: 15% of the profits on such investment (calculated as the proceeds of such investment less allocable management fees (as defined in the Operating Agreement) and the cost of such investment) for returns between 1.0x and 2.0x the cost of such investment (plus allocable management fees), and 20% of the profits on such investment for returns exceeding 2.0x the cost of such investment (plus allocable management fees). However, to the extent that, as of the liquidity event, the value of the portfolio of unrealized investments is less than the aggregate cost of such investments, the Manager’s carried interest entitlement will be correspondingly reduced until such time as the investment portfolio has recovered in value.
The Management Services Agreement has an initial term of five years, expiring on September 1, 2024. Pursuant to its terms, the Management Services Agreement will be automatically renewed for one-year terms thereafter unless earlier terminated by either the Company or the Manager in accordance with the terms of the Management Services Agreement.
The Company and Manager began paying fees associated with the Externalization beginning on November 1, 2019.
Equity Fund
On December 12, 2019, we entered into a limited partnership with an investment fund manager designed to opportunistically trade in marketable securities (the "Equity Fund"). We initially contributed $90.9 million of cash in exchange for limited partnership interests in the Equity Fund representing 49.0% of its outstanding equity and a deposit on hand with the Equity Fund. We and the other limited partners of the Equity Fund intend to make pro-rata investments through April 2020. We are committed to invest a total of $245.0 million. Subsequent to December 31, 2019, we invested an additional $100.0 million in the Equity Fund. As of December 31, 2019, $45.3 million of our contribution to the Equity Fund is held on deposit with the Equity Fund until such time as the general partner utilizes the funds and other limited partners make matching pro-rata contributions. The portion of our investment held on deposit is included in Prepaid expense and other current assets on our Consolidated and Combined Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2019. We account for the $45.6 million of our investment that was contributed to the Equity Fund's capital under the equity method of accounting, and such portion is included in Investments in unconsolidated affiliates on our Consolidated and Combined Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2019.
Other Developments
On September 18, 2019, our Board of Directors adopted a resolution increasing to nine the size of our Board of Directors, and elected Mark D. Linehan to serve on our Board of Directors. Mr. Linehan will serve in Class III of our Board of Directors, and his term will expire at the annual meeting of our shareholders to be held in 2020. Mr. Linehan has not been appointed to any committee of our Board.
On December 5, 2019, we completed a public offering of 7,475,000 shares of our common stock pursuant to a prospectus supplement, dated December 3, 2019, and the base prospectus, dated November 27, 2019, included in our registration statement on Form S-3 ASR (File No. 333-235303), which was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 27, 2019. We received net proceeds from the Offering of approximately $236.0 million, after deducting the underwriting discount and capitalized offering expenses payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds of the offering to fund future acquisitions, for working capital and general corporate purposes.
On December 24, 2019, we entered into an equity commitment letter with funds associated with Thomas H. Lee Partners L.P. ("THL") pursuant to which Cannae is committed to provide $125.0 million to a partnership (the “AmeriLife Joint Venture”) which will invest in the recapitalization of AmeriLife Group, LLC ("AmeriLife"). Cannae, THL and other investors will provide $617.0 million of aggregate equity financing to the AmeriLife Joint Venture to acquire AmeriLife. We have the option to syndicate a portion of our equity commitment prior to closing and expect to be a minority owner of the AmeriLife Joint Venture. The transaction is expected to close in the first or second quarter of 2020. AmeriLife is a leader in marketing and distributing life, health, and retirement solutions.
Related Party Transactions 
Our financial statements for all years presented reflect transactions with FNF. See Note R to our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report for further discussion.

30


Business Trends and Conditions 
Dun & Bradstreet
Businesses rely on business-to-business data and analytics providers to extract data-driven insights and make better decisions. For example, in commercial lending and trade credit, the scarcity of readily available credit history makes the extension of credit a time-consuming and imprecise process. In procurement, businesses face increasingly complex and global supply chains, making the assessment of compliance and viability of all suppliers prohibitively difficult and expensive if not conducted effectively. In sales and marketing, businesses have benefited from the proliferation of CRM, Marketing Automation and Sales Acceleration tools designed to help identify, track and improve both customer management and prospecting growth activities. While these tools are helping to fill sales funnels and improve the progression of opportunities, key challenges remain in salesforce productivity, effective client segmentation and marketing campaign activation. Common stumbling blocks include incorrect, or outdated, contact information, duplicated or inaccurate firmographic data and a lack of synchronization between the various platforms in the marketing technology ecosystem.
D&B helps its clients solve these mission critical business problems. D&B believes the total addressable market (‘‘TAM’’) in which it operates is large, growing and significantly underpenetrated. IDC estimates worldwide revenues of big data and analytics software to be approximately $67 billion in 2019. Within the broader market of data and analytics solutions, D&B serves a number of different markets, including the commercial credit data, sales and marketing data and Governance, Risk and Compliance markets. As D&B continues to drive innovation in its solutions, it expects to address a greater portion of this TAM as new use cases for its data assets and analytical capabilities are introduced.
D&B believes there are several key trends in the global macroeconomic environment generating additional growth in D&B's TAM and increasing the demand for its solutions, including, growing recognition by business of the value of analytics and data-informed business decisioning, growth in data creation and applications driven by the proliferation of new technologies with new data sets and applications, advances in analytical capabilities that are unlocking the value of data, and heightened compliance requirements in the regulatory environment for business driven by the growth of new technologies.
Ceridian
As of December 31, 2019, we own a 16.4% interest in Ceridian. Ceridian is a global company that offers a broad range of services and software designed to help employers more effectively manage employment processes, such as payroll, payroll related tax filing, human resource information systems, employee self-service, time and labor management, and recruitment and applicant screening. As a result of Ceridian's acquisition of Dayforce Corporation in 2012, which built Dayforce, a cloud HCM solution, Ceridian generally stopped actively selling its bureau solutions to new customers in the United States to focus its resources on expanding the Dayforce platform and growing cloud solutions. Through the year ended December 31, 2019, Ceridian’s cloud revenue is more than double its legacy bureau revenue and continues to grow.
    Over the last several years, a number of factors have significantly affected Ceridian’s results of operations, including its capital restructuring resulting from the initial acquisition by Thomas H. Lee Partners, L.P., a Delaware limited partnership ("THL") and FNFV, LLC of all of the outstanding equity of the Ceridian entities that was completed on November 9, 2007 (such acquisition, the "2007 Merger"), and the related interest expense, the accounting and purchase price allocations from the 2007 Merger, the acquisition in 2012 of the Dayforce legal entities, and Ceridian’s corporate restructuring following the 2013 separation of Ceridian HCM and Comdata. Other factors that have affected Ceridian’s results of operations over the last several years include the levels of customer trust funds held, transaction volumes, price increases, foreign currency exchange rates, interest rates (including interest earned on customer trust funds and interest expense on debt), customer employment levels, and its cost savings initiatives. Ceridian is subject to the risks arising from adverse changes in domestic and global economic conditions. Ceridian believes all of such factors may continue to significantly affect its results of operations.
Restaurant Group
       The restaurant industry is highly competitive and is often affected by changes in consumer tastes and discretionary spending patterns; changes in general economic conditions; public safety conditions or concerns; demographic trends; weather conditions; the cost of food products, labor, energy and other operating costs; and governmental regulations. Higher labor costs due to state and local minimum wage increases and shopping pattern shifts to e-commerce and “ready to eat” grocery and convenience stores have had a negative impact on restaurant performance, particularly in the casual and family dining restaurants in which the company operates.
The restaurant industry is also characterized by high capital investments for new restaurants and relatively high fixed or semi-variable restaurant operating expenses.  Because of the high fixed and semi-variable expenses, changes in sales in existing restaurants are generally expected to significantly affect restaurant profitability because many restaurant costs and expenses are not expected to change at the same rate as sales.  Restaurant profitability can also be negatively affected by inflationary and regulatory increases in operating costs and other factors.  The most significant commodities that may affect our cost of food and beverage are beef, seafood, poultry, and dairy, which accounted for approximately half of our overall cost of food and beverage

31


in the past. Generally, temporary increases in these costs are not passed on to guests; however, in the past, we have adjusted menu prices to compensate for increased costs of a more permanent nature.
Average weekly sales per restaurant are typically higher in the first and fourth quarters than in other quarters, and we typically generate a disproportionate share of our earnings from operations in the first and fourth quarters. Holidays, severe weather and other disruptive conditions may impact sales volumes seasonally in some operating regions.
Our revenues in future periods will continue to be subject to these and other factors that are beyond our control and, as a result, are likely to fluctuate.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates 
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. See Note A to our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report for discussion our significant accounting policies.
The accounting policies and estimates described below are those we consider critical in preparing our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements. Management is required to make estimates and assumptions that can affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures with respect to contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual amounts could differ from those estimates.
Valuation of Goodwill. Goodwill represents the excess of cost over fair value of identifiable net assets acquired and assumed in a business combination. Goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are reviewed for impairment annually or more frequently if circumstances indicate potential impairment, through a comparison of fair value to the carrying amount. We have the option to first assess goodwill for impairment based on a review of qualitative factors to determine if events and circumstances exist which will lead to a determination that the fair value of a reporting unit is greater than its carrying amount, prior to performing a full fair-value assessment. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, we determine it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the quantitative impairment test is unnecessary. However, we conclude otherwise, then we are required to perform the quantitative impairment test by calculating the fair value of the reporting unit and comparing the fair value with the carrying amount of the reporting unit. Goodwill impairment, if any, is measured as the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying value exceeds its fair value.
We allocate goodwill to reporting units based on the reporting unit expected to benefit from the business combination. We evaluate our reporting units on at least an annual basis and, if necessary, reassign goodwill using a relative fair value allocation approach. Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level (operating segment or one level below an operating segment) annually in the fourth quarter (October 1) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. These events or circumstances could include a significant change in the business climate, legal factors, operating performance indicators, competition, or sale or disposition of a significant portion of a reporting unit.
We use a combination of discounted cash flow analyses and market approaches to determine the fair value of each of our reporting units. Our discounted cash flow projections include assumptions for growth rates for revenues, costs and earnings, which are based on various long-range financial and operational plans of each reporting unit. Additionally, discount rates used in our goodwill analysis are based on weighted-average cost of capital, driven by comparable public companies, the prevailing interest rates, credit ratings, financing abilities and opportunities of each reporting unit, among other factors. Our market-based valuations utilize earnings multiples of comparable public companies, which are reflective of the market in which each respective reporting unit operates, and recent comparable market transactions. Changes in the factors used in our fair value estimates, including declines in industry or company-specific sales, margin erosion, discount rates used, and market multiples could have a significant impact on the fair values of the reporting units.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded $35.1 million of impairment to goodwill in our former T-System segment and $10.4 million of impairment to goodwill in our Restaurant Group segment as a result of our annual goodwill impairment testing. The impairment charge in our Restaurant Group is a result of deteriorating operating results and cash flow resulting from declining same store sales and increased costs, primarily in our Village Inn and Bakers Square branded stores. As a result of the goodwill impairment in the Restaurant Group, the fair value of this reporting unit approximates its carrying value and relatively small decreases in future forecasts or changes in other assumptions could result in additional goodwill impairment. The impairment in our former T-System segment is primarily a result of a decline in earnings multiples from comparable public companies and lower forecasted cash flows for its reporting units. The impairments recorded were calculated as the deficit between the carrying value of the reporting units of each segment compared to the fair value of the reporting unit determined by performing a combination of discounted cash flow and market approaches.

32


Impairment to goodwill in our former T-System segment is included in Net loss from discontinued operations on the Consolidated and Combined Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2019. See Note N to our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded $26.7 million of impairment to goodwill in our Restaurant Group segment. The impairment charge was a result of deteriorating operating results and cash flow resulting from declining same store sales and increased costs. The impairment recorded was calculated as the deficit between the carrying value of a reporting unit of the Restaurant Group segment compared to the fair value of the reporting unit determined by performing a combination of discounted cash flow and market approaches.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, we determined that there were no events or circumstances which indicated that the carrying value of goodwill exceeded the fair value and no impairment was recorded.
Valuation of Other Intangible Assets. We have other intangible assets, not including goodwill, which consist primarily of customer relationships and contracts, trademarks and tradenames that are generally recorded in connection with acquisitions at their fair value, franchise rights, the fair value of purchased software and capitalized software development costs. Intangible assets with estimable lives are amortized over their respective estimated useful lives to their estimated residual values and reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. In general, customer relationships are amortized over their estimated useful lives using an accelerated method, which takes into consideration expected customer attrition rates. Contractual relationships are generally amortized over their respective contractual lives. Useful lives of computer software range from 3 to 10 years. Trademarks and tradenames are generally considered intangible assets with indefinite lives and are reviewed for impairment at least annually. Capitalized software development costs and purchased software are recorded at cost and amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful life.
Our primary indefinite-lived other intangible assets are the tradenames of our Restaurant Group brands. Tradenames are tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter (October 1) and between annual tests if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a tradename below its carrying value. We use a relief from royalty method to determine the fair value of our tradenames, which includes assumptions for growth rates for revenues, tax rates, discount rates and royalty rates. Changes in the factors used in our fair value estimates, including declines in industry or company-specific sales, discount rates used, and royalty rates could have a significant impact on the fair values of our tradenames.
We recorded $17.1 million of impairment expense related to the Village Inn and Bakers square tradenames within our Restaurant Group in the year ended December 31, 2019. We recorded $5.8 million of impairment expense related to a tradename and an abandoned software project in our Restaurant Group in the year ended December 31, 2018. We recorded $2.9 million of impairment expense related to a tradename in our Restaurant Group in the year ended December 31, 2017. The impairments are recorded within Other operating expenses on our Consolidated and Combined Statement of Operations for the years then ended.
During our 2019 other intangible impairment testing of the Restaurant Group's O'Charley's tradename, we determined that the excess of the fair value of the tradename over its book value was nominal. Given that the fair value is not substantially in excess of the book value, relatively small decreases in future revenues from forecasted results or changes in royalty rates or other assumptions could result in impairment of the tradename.
Accounting for Income Taxes. We recognize deferred tax assets and liabilities for temporary differences between the financial reporting basis and the tax basis of our assets and liabilities and expected benefits of utilizing net operating loss and credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The impact of changes in tax rates and laws on deferred taxes, if any, is applied to the years during which temporary differences are expected to be settled and reflected in the financial statements in the period enacted.
Refer to Note L to our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report for further discussion of our accounting for income taxes.
Certain Factors Affecting Comparability 
Year ended December 31, 2019. On December 31, 2019, we completed the T-System Contribution. As a result of the T-System Contribution, we reclassified the results of operations of T-System to discontinued operations for all periods presented in our Consolidated and Combined Statements of Operations.
Year ended December 31, 2017. On June 6, 2017, we closed on the sale of OneDigital for $560.0 million in an all-cash transaction. As a result of the sale of OneDigital, we reclassified the results of operations of OneDigital to discontinued operations in our Consolidated and Combined Statements of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2017.

33


Results of Operations
 Consolidated Results of Operations
 Net earnings.  The following table presents certain financial data for the years indicated:
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
(In millions)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
Restaurant revenue
$
1,043.3

 
$
1,117.8

 
$
1,129.0

Other operating revenue
26.7

 
29.7

 
27.6

Total operating revenues
1,070.0

 
1,147.5

 
1,156.6

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of restaurant revenue
912.8

 
991.3

 
991.0

Personnel costs
90.3

 
137.2

 
95.6

Depreciation and amortization
40.7

 
46.3

 
46.2

Other operating expenses, including asset impairments
133.4

 
91.8

 
101.3

Goodwill impairment
10.4

 
26.7

 

Total operating expenses
1,187.6

 
1,293.3

 
1,234.1

Operating loss
(117.6
)
 
(145.8
)
 
(77.5
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
Interest, investment and other income
15.6

 
6.3

 
5.3

Interest expense
(17.8
)
 
(4.7
)
 
(7.0
)
Realized gains, net
357.7

 
166.8

 
4.9

Total other income
355.5

 
168.4

 
3.2

Earnings (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in (losses) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
237.9

 
22.6

 
(74.3
)
Income tax expense (benefit)
24.2

 
15.0

 
(14.2
)
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations before equity in (losses) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
213.7

 
7.6

 
(60.1
)
Equity in (losses) earnings of unconsolidated affiliates
(115.1
)
 
(16.1
)
 
3.4

Earnings (loss) from continuing operations
98.6

 
(8.5
)
 
(56.7
)
Net (loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
(51.8
)
 
(2.1
)
 
149.2

Net earnings (loss)
46.8

 
(10.6
)
 
92.5

Less: Net loss attributable to non-controlling interests
(30.5
)
 
(38.2
)
 
(16.3
)
Net earnings attributable to Cannae Holdings, Inc. common shareholders
$
77.3

 
$
27.6

 
$
108.8

Revenues 
Total revenue in 2019 decreased $77.5 million compared to 2018, primarily driven by a decline in revenue in the Restaurant Group segment. Total revenue in 2018 decreased $9.1 million compared to 2017, primarily driven by a decline in revenue in our Restaurant Group segment.
The change in revenues from our segments is discussed in further detail at the segment level below.
Expenses
Our operating expenses consist primarily of personnel costs, cost of restaurant revenue, other operating expenses, and depreciation and amortization.
Personnel costs include base salaries, commissions, benefits, stock-based compensation and bonuses paid to employees, and are one of our most significant operating expenses. Personnel costs that are directly attributable to the operations of the Restaurant Group are included in Cost of restaurant revenue.  
Cost of restaurant revenue includes cost of food and beverage, primarily the costs of beef, groceries, produce, seafood, poultry and alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, net of vendor discounts and rebates, payroll and related costs and expenses directly relating to restaurant level activities, and restaurant operating costs including occupancy and other operating expenses at the restaurant level.

34


Other operating expenses include professional fees, advertising costs, travel expenses and impairments of operating assets.
Depreciation and amortization expense consists of our depreciation related to investments in property and equipment as well as amortization of intangible assets.
The change in expenses from our segments is discussed in further detail at the segment level below. 
Income tax expense (benefit) on continuing operations was $24.2 million, $15.0 million, and $(14.2) million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. The effective tax rate for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 was 10.2%, 66.4%, and 19.1%, respectively. The change in the effective tax rate in 2019 from 2018 is primarily attributable to the decreased impact of non-deductible executive compensation on pretax income, partially offset by the increased impact of equity losses from unconsolidated affiliates. The increase in the effective tax rate in 2018 from 2017 is primarily attributable to the change in tax laws disallowing the tax deductibility of certain executive compensation. The fluctuation in income tax benefit as a percentage of earnings from continuing operations before income taxes is attributable to our estimate of ultimate income tax liability and changes in the characteristics of net earnings year to year, such as the weighting of operating income versus investment income.
For a detailed breakout of our effective tax rate and further discussion on changes in our taxes, see Note L to our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report.
Other
Net realized gains totaled $357.7 million, $166.8 million, and $4.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively. The net realized gain for the year ended December 31, 2019 is primarily attributable to $342.1 million of gains on the Ceridian Share Sales and $3.9 million of gains on sales of property in the Restaurant Group. The net realized gain for the year ended December 31, 2018 is primarily attributable to a $92.6 million gain on the sale of Ceridian shares in the fourth quarter of 2018, $63.2 million of realized gains associated with Ceridian's initial public offering and the gain of $24.0 million on the sale of LifeWorks, partially offset by impairment losses of $12.5 million recognized on fixed maturity securities in the 2018 period. The net realized gain for the year ended December 31, 2017 is primarily attributable to the sale of equity securities available for sale.
Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated affiliates for the periods indicated consisted of the following (in millions):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
Ceridian
$
16.4

 
$
(20.5
)
 
$
1.9

Dun & Bradstreet
(132.8
)
 

 

Other
1.3

 
4.4

 
1.5

Total
$
(115.1
)
 
$
(16.1
)
 
$
3.4

Net Earnings
Net earnings attributable to Cannae increased $49.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to 2018. Total net earnings attributable to Cannae decreased $81.2 million in the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 2017.
The change in net earnings is attributable to the factors discussed above and net earnings from the segments is discussed in further detail at the segment level below.

35


Segment Results of Operations
Restaurant Group
The following table presents the results from operations of our Restaurant Group segment:
 
Year ended December 31,
 
2019
 
2018
 
2017
 
(In millions)
Revenues:
 

 
 
 
 
Restaurant revenue
$
1,043.3

 
$
1,117.8

 
$
1,129.0

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of restaurant revenue
912.8

 
991.3

 
991.0

Personnel costs
52.1

 
47.3

 
52.8

Depreciation and amortization
38.5

 
44.9

 
43.6

Other operating expenses, including asset impairments
108.9

 
86.3

 
71.1

Goodwill impairment
10.4

 
26.7

 

Total operating expenses
1,122.7

 
1,196.5

 
1,158.5

Operating loss
(79.4
)
 
(78.7
)
 
(29.5
)
Other expense:
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(5.4
)
 
(16.0
)
 
(6.6
)
Realized gains and losses, net
3.9

 
(2.1
)
 

Total other expense
(1.5
)
 
(18.1
)
 
(6.6
)
Loss from continuing operations before income taxes and equity in losses of unconsolidated affiliates
(80.9
)
 
(96.8
)
 
(36.1
)
Total revenues for the Restaurant Group segment decreased $74.5 million, or 6.7%, in the year ended December 31, 2019 from 2018. The decrease was primarily driven by decreased revenue related to the closing or sale of 48 company-owned restaurants primarily associated with our O'Charley's, Village Inn and Bakers Square concepts in 2019 and to a lesser extent a decrease in comparable store sales. The decrease was partially offset by increases in the average guest check. Total revenues for the Restaurant Group segment decreased $11.2 million, or 1.0%, in the year ended December 31, 2018 from 2017. The decrease is primarily attributable to a decrease in restaurant sales, primarily driven by closed restaurants, decreased comparable store sales and guest counts overall, partially offset by increases in bakery sales.
Comparable Store Sales. One method we use in evaluating the performance of our restaurants is to compare sales results for restaurants period over period. A new restaurant is included in our comparable store sales figures starting in the first period following the restaurant's first seventy-eight weeks of operations. Changes in comparable store sales reflect changes in sales for the comparable store group of restaurants over a specified period of time. This measure highlights the performance of existing restaurants, as the impact of new restaurant openings is excluded. Comparable store sales for our 99 Restaurants brand changed (0.4)% and 2.6% in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, from the prior fiscal years. The decrease in 2019 is primarily attributable to lower guest counts partially offset by an increase in the average guest check. Comparable store sales for our O' Charley's brand decreased 2.5% and 2.9% in the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, from the prior fiscal years. Comparable store sales for our Blue Ribbon brands changed as follows for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, from the prior fiscal years: Village Inn decreased 1.7% and 0.4%, respectively, and Bakers Square changed 3.4% and (0.9)%, respectively. The decrease in both periods at O' Charley's and Village Inn is primarily attributable to decreased guest counts partially offset by an increase in the average guest check. The increase at Bakers Square in 2019 is attributable to increased average guest check, partially offset by a reduction in guest counts.
Other operating expenses increased by $22.6 million, or 26.2%, in the year ended December 31, 2019 from 2018. Other operating expenses increased by $15.2 million, or 21.4%, in the year ended December 31, 2018 from 2017. The increase in both periods is primarily attributable to impairments of other intangible assets and lease assets.
Cost of restaurant revenue decreased $78.5 million, or 7.9%, in the year ended December 31, 2019 from 2018. Cost of restaurant revenue increased $0.3 million, or less than 1.0%, in the year ended December 31, 2018 from 2017. Cost of restaurant revenue as a percentage of restaurant revenue were approximately 87.5%, 88.7%, and 87.8% in the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The decrease in cost of restaurant revenue as a percentage of restaurant revenues was primarily driven by the closure of underperforming stores with lower margins and higher operating expenses in 2019. The increase in cost of restaurant

36


revenue as a percentage of restaurant revenue in 2018 compared to 2017 was primarily attributable to increased cost of food and labor.
See Note A to our Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this Annual Report for further discussion of goodwill impairments in our Restaurant Group.
Loss from continuing operations before income taxes decreased $15.9 million in the year ended December 31, 2019 from 2018. Loss from continuing operations before income taxes increased $60.7 million in the year ended December 31, 2018 from 2017. The change in losses is primarily attributable to the factors discussed above.
Ceridian
We own a 16.4% economic interest in Ceridian. We account for our investment in Ceridian under the equity method of accounting; therefore, its results of operations do not consolidate into ours. Details relating to the results of operations of Ceridian (NYSE: "CDAY") can be found in its periodic filings with the SEC. The audited financial statements of Ceridian can also be found at Exhibit 99.1 to this Annual Report.
Dun & Bradstreet